Duluth campus
 
Duluth Campus

Water Resources Science Ph.D.

Swenson College of Science & Engineering
University of Minnesota Duluth
Link to a list of faculty for this program.
Contact Information
Water Resources Science, 173 McNeal Hall, 1985 Buford Avenue, St. Paul MN 55108 (612-624-7456; fax: 612-625-1263)
Email: wrs@umn.edu
  • Program Type: Doctorate
  • Requirements for this program are current for Spring 2023
  • Length of program in credits: 48
  • This program does not require summer semesters for timely completion.
  • The Water Resource Science Ph.D. is an All-University program delivered on the Twin Cities and Duluth Campuses. The University of Minnesota Twin Cities is the degree granting authority for the Water Resources Science Ph.D. program in Duluth.
  • Degree: Doctor of Philosophy
Along with the program-specific requirements listed below, please read the General Information section of this website for requirements that apply to all major fields.
This cross-campus interdisciplinary program provides comprehensive training in water resources science, with integration across scientific disciplines. A structured interdisciplinary graduate curriculum is offered. The program includes a set of core courses plus electives in the following areas of emphasis at the PhD level: aquatic biology, environmental chemistry, hydrologic science, limnology, water management technology, water policy, water quality, and watershed science and management. Approximately 50 courses offered within 15 other graduate programs are available to students majoring in water resources science. The goal of the program is to produce scientists with strong technical skills in disciplines relevant to water resources and a broad understanding of 1) the hydrologic cycle and associated ecosystems, 2) the interconnectedness of the sciences involved in managing aquatic resources, and 3) the interplay between the biophysical sciences and social sciences in developing and implementing public policies related to water. Students in the program develop the breadth of scientific knowledge appropriate to understand the complicated aquatic ecosystems and watersheds on which they will work, as well as social dimensions of the topic, including the public policy and legal frameworks in which water resources are protected and managed. The program involves faculty from the following departments on the Twin Cities campus: Applied Economics; Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering; Chemistry; Civil Engineering; Earth Sciences; Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior; Entomology; Environmental and Occupational Health; Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology; Forest Resources; Horticultural Science; Landscape Architecture; Soil, Water, and Climate; and the Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. It also involves faculty from the following departments on the Duluth campus: Biology; Chemical Engineering; Chemistry; Civil Engineering; Earth and Environmental Sciences; Mechanical Engineering and Physics; as well as the Large Lakes Observatory and the Natural Resources Research Institute in Duluth.
Program Delivery
  • via classroom (the majority of instruction is face-to-face)
Prerequisites for Admission
The preferred undergraduate GPA for admittance to the program is 3.00.
Most applicants have a bachelor’s degree in a physical or biological science discipline or engineering field; however, individuals from a variety of backgrounds are welcome to apply.
Other requirements to be completed before admission:
Recommended academic preparation includes at least two courses each in calculus, chemistry, and physics, at least one course in the biological sciences, and some experience or background in statistics. Availability of funding and willingness of a member of the graduate faculty to serve as an adviser are important criteria for admission to the program.
Special Application Requirements:
Applications must include: · 3 letters of recommendation from professors qualified to estimate the applicant’s class rank, and to evaluate their ability to complete a master’s program, or persons who can assess the applicant’s professional or research potential. · Résumé of academic and professional experience. · Statement of purpose, including the proposed emphasis area. Students may apply for admission any semester but are strongly encouraged to submit their application by December 1 for fall semester admission. More specific application instructions can be found on the program website: wrs.umn.edu/prospective-students International and domestic applicants whose first language is not English must submit score(s) from one of the following tests:
International applicants must submit score(s) from one of the following tests:
  • TOEFL
    • Internet Based - Total Score: 79
    • Internet Based - Writing Score: 21
    • Internet Based - Reading Score: 19
  • IELTS
    • Total Score: 6.5
    • Reading Score: 6.5
    • Writing Score: 6.5
  • MELAB
    • Final score: 80
Key to test abbreviations (TOEFL, IELTS, MELAB).
For an online application or for more information about graduate education admissions, see the General Information section of this website.
Program Requirements
24 credits are required in the major.
0 credits are required outside the major.
24 thesis credits are required.
This program may be completed with a minor.
Use of 4xxx courses toward program requirements is permitted under certain conditions with adviser approval.
A minimum GPA of 3.00 is required for students to remain in good standing.
At least 2 semesters must be completed before filing a Degree Program Form.
Coursework is tailored to student interests, and many areas of emphasis are possible. Core courses are offered on both the Twin Cities and Duluth campuses. Courses offered on both the A-F and S/N grade basis must be taken A-F with a minimum grade of C-.
Core Courses (13 cr)
Select at least one course from each of the following groups in consultation with the advisor:
Hydrology
Take 1 or more course(s) from the following:
· CE 4228 - Watershed Engineering (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 4446 - Water Processes and Management (3.0 cr)
· EES 5201 - Watershed Hydrology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5250 - Hydrogeology (4.0 cr)
· LIM 5101 - Physical Limnology (3.0 cr)
Environmental/Water Chemistry
Take 1 or more course(s) from the following:
· CE 5241 - Water Chemistry (3.0 cr)
· CHEM 5150 - Organic and Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry (3.0 cr)
· CHEM 5212 - Advanced Environmental Chemistry (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5102 - Chemical Limnology (3.0 cr)
Limnology
Take 1 or more course(s) from the following:
· BIOL 5833 - Stream Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5861 - Lake Ecology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5010 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology (3.0 cr)
Water Policy
Take the following course:
WRS 5101 - Water Policy (3.0 cr)
Ethics and Responsible Conduct in Research
Take the following course:
WRS 8581 - Research and Professional Ethics in Water Resources and Environmental Science (0.5 cr)
WRS Seminar
Take the following course for .5 credits.
WRS 8100 - Interdisciplinary Seminar in Water Resources (0.5-3.0 cr)
Electives (11 cr)
Select credits from the following, in consultation with the advisor, to complete the 24 course credits required. Other courses can be selected with advisor approval.
Take 11 or more credit(s) from the following:
· BIOL 4761 - Ichthyology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5201 - Leverage bioinformatic tools to manage big data and answer primary biology questions (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5801 - Microbial Ecology (2.0 cr)
· BIOL 5805 - Fisheries Ecology and Management (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5808 - Landscape Ecology: Theory and Application (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5809 - Ecological Statistics (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5833 - Stream Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5861 - Lake Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5863 - Ecosystems Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5870 - Wetland Ecology (3.0 cr)
· CE 4213 - Open Channel Hydraulics (3.0 cr)
· CE 4215 - Hydraulic Design (3.0 cr)
· CE 4228 - Watershed Engineering (3.0 cr)
· CE 5203 - Stream Crossing and Culvert Design (3.0 cr)
· CE 5216 - Applications in Environmental Modeling (3.0 cr)
· CE 5237 - Water Quality Engineering (3.0 cr)
· CE 5241 - Water Chemistry (3.0 cr)
· CE 5246 - Environmental Remediation Technologies (3.0 cr)
· CHEM 5150 - Organic and Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry (3.0 cr)
· CHEM 5212 - Advanced Environmental Chemistry (3.0 cr)
· EES 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5201 - Watershed Hydrology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5210 - Glacial and Quaternary Geology (4.0 cr)
· EES 5220 - Advances in Paleoclimatology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5250 - Hydrogeology (4.0 cr)
· EES 5260 - Fluvial Geomorphology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5601 - Introduction to Stream Restoration (3.0 cr)
· EES 5603 - Stream Crossing Design (2.0 cr)
· EES 8602 - Stream Restoration Practice (2.0 cr)
· GEOG 4446 - Water Processes and Management (3.0 cr)
· GIS 5572 - Environmental Application of GIS (4.0 cr)
· LIM 5010 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5011 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters (2.0 cr)
· LIM 5012 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5013 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II (2.0 cr)
· LIM 5101 - Physical Limnology (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5102 - Chemical Limnology (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5105 - Research Frontiers and New Directions in Limnology and Environmental Science (1.0 cr)
· PHYS 5541 - Fluid Dynamics (3.0 cr)
Thesis (24 cr)
Take for a total of 24 credits.
WRS 8888 - Thesis Credits: Doctoral (1.0-24.0 cr)
Program Sub-plans
A sub-plan is not required for this program.
Students may not complete the program with more than one sub-plan.
Limnology and Oceanography
The science of inland waters, or "limnology," includes the study of streams, lakes, ponds, and wetlands. While Lake Superior falls into this category, the style of research, particularly the nature of sampling and the scale of the processes investigated, makes study of Lake Superior and other Great Lakes more akin to oceanography than to classical limnology. A program that focuses on the study of both limnology and oceanography strengthens understanding of both systems, through comparative studies and by fostering interaction between groups that focus more strongly on one or the other system. Limnology and oceanography are by necessity interdisciplinary fields, with major components contributed by biological, geological, physical, and chemical sciences. This track within the cross-campus interdisciplinary WRS program provides comprehensive training in limnology and oceanography. As is the case for the WRS graduate program as a whole, the limnology and oceanography program includes a set of core courses plus electives in the subfield of limnology and oceanography. The goal of the program is to produce scientists with strong technical skills in aquatic science and a broad understanding of limnology and oceanography. Faculty on both Twin Cities and Duluth campuses participate in the limnology and oceanography track. PhD students pursuing this track must have at least two members of the limnology and oceanography track faculty on their committee including the advisor.
Core Courses (11 cr)
Take the following courses:
Limnology
LIM 5010 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters (3.0 cr)
LIM 5011 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters (2.0 cr)
LIM 5013 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II (2.0 cr)
Water Policy
WRS 5101 - Water Policy (3.0 cr)
Ethics and Responsible Conduct in Research
WRS 8581 - Research and Professional Ethics in Water Resources and Environmental Science (0.5 cr)
WRS Seminar
Take the following course for .5 credits.
WRS 8100 - Interdisciplinary Seminar in Water Resources (0.5-3.0 cr)
Electives (13 cr)
Select credits from the following, in consultation with the advisor, to complete the 24 course credits required. Other courses can be selected with advisor approval.
Take 13 or more credit(s) from the following:
· BIOL 4761 - Ichthyology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5201 - Leverage bioinformatic tools to manage big data and answer primary biology questions (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5801 - Microbial Ecology (2.0 cr)
· BIOL 5805 - Fisheries Ecology and Management (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5808 - Landscape Ecology: Theory and Application (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5809 - Ecological Statistics (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5833 - Stream Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5861 - Lake Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5863 - Ecosystems Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5870 - Wetland Ecology (3.0 cr)
· CE 4213 - Open Channel Hydraulics (3.0 cr)
· CE 4215 - Hydraulic Design (3.0 cr)
· CE 4228 - Watershed Engineering (3.0 cr)
· CE 5203 - Stream Crossing and Culvert Design (3.0 cr)
· CE 5216 - Applications in Environmental Modeling (3.0 cr)
· CE 5237 - Water Quality Engineering (3.0 cr)
· CE 5241 - Water Chemistry (3.0 cr)
· CE 5246 - Environmental Remediation Technologies (3.0 cr)
· CHEM 5150 - Organic and Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry (3.0 cr)
· CHEM 5212 - Advanced Environmental Chemistry (3.0 cr)
· EES 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5201 - Watershed Hydrology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5210 - Glacial and Quaternary Geology (4.0 cr)
· EES 5220 - Advances in Paleoclimatology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5250 - Hydrogeology (4.0 cr)
· EES 5260 - Fluvial Geomorphology (3.0 cr)
· EES 5601 - Introduction to Stream Restoration (3.0 cr)
· EES 5603 - Stream Crossing Design (2.0 cr)
· EES 8602 - Stream Restoration Practice (2.0 cr)
· GEOG 4446 - Water Processes and Management (3.0 cr)
· GIS 5572 - Environmental Application of GIS (4.0 cr)
· LIM 5010 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5011 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters (2.0 cr)
· LIM 5012 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5013 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II (2.0 cr)
· LIM 5101 - Physical Limnology (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5102 - Chemical Limnology (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5105 - Research Frontiers and New Directions in Limnology and Environmental Science (1.0 cr)
· PHYS 5541 - Fluid Dynamics (3.0 cr)
 
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CE 4228 - Watershed Engineering
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Basic principles in hydrologic modeling and concepts of watershed delineation, land use change impact, case studies, and modeling tools are discussed and applied to natural and urban watersheds. The course will utilize hydraulic and hydrologic models and GIS tools for engineering design. pre-req: CE 3225 or instructor consent
GEOG 4446 - Water Processes and Management
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Introduction to the surface water processes and water resources management, including precipitation, runoff generation, channel processes, spatial and temporal variations in water distribution, aspects of water quantity and quality, and watershed management problems. Prereq: Geog 1414 or Geol 1110 or Graduate students or Instructor consent.
EES 5201 - Watershed Hydrology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ESCI 5201/EES 5201
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
This is an upper-division hydrology course covering the hydrologic cycle in the context of wildland watersheds. The course will cover the major components of the hydrologic cycle, including precipitation, snow hydrology, canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, soil water storage, runoff, streamflow and groundwater flow. The impacts of watershed management on water quantity and quality will be discussed using regional, national, and global examples, with an emphasis on solving real-world problems using hydrologic datasets. This course includes a 2-hour lab that meets once per week. pre-req: MATH 1290 or 1296 or grad student; no credit granted if already received for EES or ESCI or GEOL 4201 or ESCI or GEOL 5201
EES 5250 - Hydrogeology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
A quantitative introduction to hydrogeology and aquifer mechanics with emphasis on environmental applications, including, unsaturated flow, interaction between surface water and groundwater, wellhead protection, well hydraulics, inverse methods, and solute transport. Offered alternate years. prereq: Math 1290 or 1296 amd PHYS 1002 or 2013 or 2017; or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for EES or GEOL 4250 or GEOL 5250
LIM 5101 - Physical Limnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: LIM 5101/5001
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Physical description of lake dynamics including: lake morphometry, water budget, light distribution, circulation, fronts, waves and mixing. Descriptive, mathematical, numerical and data-analysis techniques are used to investigate the various topics. prereq: Math 1297, Phys 2012 or 2015 and 2016, or grad student
CE 5241 - Water Chemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Water is critical component of environmental systems, and the chemistry that occurs in water is a rich subject. This class focuses on water chemistry in both natural and engineered systems. Topics include a review of thermodynamics and equilibrium, acids and bases, titrations, the carbonate system, solubility of minerals, metal ion complexation, oxidation/reduction chemistry, and descriptions of adsorption. Principles are applied to chemistry in water treatment, nutrient cycling, organic matter, and organic pollutants. Both chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics are explored. Students will be introduced to software that can be used to solve water chemistry problems. The class is targeted at seniors and graduate students. pre-req: CE 3025 or CHEM 1155, or graduate student or instructor consent
CHEM 5150 - Organic and Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Production and chemical composition of natural organic matter (OM), diagenesis and catagenesis of OM; stable isotopic fractionation processes of C, H, O, N, and S in natural systems, fractionation theory, isotopic indicators of climate, oceanographic/limnologic processes, trophic structure, microbial processes. prereq: BIOL 1012 and (CHEM 1152 or 1155 and 1156 or 1162 or 1175 and 1176) and (CHEM 2222 or 2212 or 2242) OR instructor consent
CHEM 5212 - Advanced Environmental Chemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Quantitative, advanced study of chemical processes in the natural environment. This course will cover the chemistry of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, focusing on the sources, fluxes, cycling, reactions, and transformation of natural and anthropogenic chemicals. pre-req: graduate student, credit will not be granted if already received for CHEM 4212.
LIM 5102 - Chemical Limnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Organic and inorganic chemistry of natural waters, major and minor ions, pH-Eh relationships, carbon and nutrient cycles, pore water chemistry, sediment chemistry, microbial geochemistry. Offered alternate years. prereq: Math 1296, Phys 1002 or 1202, Chem 1152 or 1162, or grad student; Credit will not be granted if already received for 5001
BIOL 5833 - Stream Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Studies of stream communities and ecosystems as influenced by biological interactions and physical factors. Emphasis on North Shore streams. (2 hrs lect, 6 hrs lab and field) prereq: 2801 or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5861 - Lake Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
This course offers a hands-on introduction to the ecology of lake ecosystems with a focus on lakes of the temperate and boreal regions, particularly Minnesota. We explore how factors including temperature, light, water chemistry, water motion, nutrients, and organisms interact in aquatic environments to determine the distribution, abundance, and behavior of aquatic biota. Laboratory exercises reinforce and expand on lecture materials and include the identification of fish, zooplankton, benthos, and phytoplankton as well as field excursions to area lakes. prereq: WRS or IBS Grad student
EES 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Lim 5103/5002/EES 5103
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Geological aspects of freshwater systems: origins, tectonic and climatic settings of lakes, geophysical mapping, physical sedimentary processes, sedimentary geochemistry, and geochronology. Particular focus on paleolimnology, the analysis of lake sediment to reconstruct past climate and environment prereq: MATH 1296 or 1596, PHYS 1002 or 2015 or 2018, CHEM 1155 or 1175 or grad student; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL or LIM 5103
LIM 5010 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
An interdisciplinary introduction to the science of Limnology taught at the beginning graduate student level. The science of inland waters, Limnology, is built on Geology, Chemistry, Biology, and Physics and increasingly includes Social Sciences. In this course, students will experience an in-depth, integrated approach to Limnology. Lake systems are emphasized but wetland and running water systems are discussed. The course includes significant out of class time reviewing on-line modules and other materials. In-class time is devoted mainly to group work, problem solving, and student-led discussions and presentations. An optional companion laboratory and practice course (LIM 5011) is associated with this course where additional foundational and fundamental limnological techniques are taught. pre-req: graduate student or instructor consent
LIM 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Lim 5103/5002/EES 5103
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Geological aspects of freshwater systems: origins, tectonic and climatic settings of lakes, geophysical mapping, physical sedimentary processes, sedimentary geochemistry, and geochronology. Particular focus on paleolimnology, the analysis of lake sediment to reconstruct past climate and environment prereq: MATH 1290 or 1296 or 1596, PHYS 1002 or 2015 or 2018, CHEM 1155 or 1175 or grad student
WRS 5101 - Water Policy
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CE 5201/WRS 5101
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Socio-cultural, legal, and economic factors that affect water resources management. Historical trends in water policy, resulting water laws in the United States. Federal state and local institutional structures for water management. prereq: Grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for CE 5201
WRS 8581 - Research and Professional Ethics in Water Resources and Environmental Science
Credits: 0.5 [max 0.5]
Grading Basis: S-N only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Ethics of water resources science and environmental engineering research/practice. Societal responsibility, plagiarism, record-keeping, authorship, confidentiality, conflicts of interest, professional relationships, fraud, reporting misconduct. prereq: Graduate student
WRS 8100 - Interdisciplinary Seminar in Water Resources
Credits: 0.5 -3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: S-N only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Interdisciplinary seminar in water resources science. prereq: Graduate student
BIOL 4761 - Ichthyology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Physiologic, taxonomic, ecologic, economic, and behavioral aspects of fishes. Lab emphasis on fishes of Great Lakes region, including field conducted independent study. (2 hrs lect, 3 hrs lab, field) prereq: 2801 or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5201 - Leverage bioinformatic tools to manage big data and answer primary biology questions
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Biology has moved into a new era of big data, especially in the field of genomics. This course will introduce basic principles of bioinformatics and how to apply bioinformatic tools to process large genomic datasets. This course will emphasize how to evaluate currently available software, implement software, build pipelines for analysis, interpret outputs, apply statistics and finally produce publication appropriate figures. pre-req: BIOL 2201 or grad student
BIOL 5801 - Microbial Ecology
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Microorganisms in natural environments: diversity, distribution, energetics, and growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic microbes in oxic and anoxic habitats. Roles of microbial populations and communities in biogeochemical cycling, ecosystem functioning, landscapes, and industrial, agricultural, and environmental applications. prereq: (2101 or 3100) and (2801 or 3502 or 4501), or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5805 - Fisheries Ecology and Management
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Lectures, readings and computer exercises relating to current issues in fisheries ecology. Computer exercises will emphasize techniques used by scientists working in the field and prepare the student for the use of quantitative research tools for independent research. Includes 2 one-hour lectures and 1 three-hour lab weekly. prereq: 2801, 2802, college-level course in statistics or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5808 - Landscape Ecology: Theory and Application
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Key issues in landscape ecology including scale, measuring landscape patterns, mechanisms shaping landscapes, implications of landscape patterns on plant and animal populations, communities, and ecosystems, and implementing landscape principles for natural resource management. prereq: 2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5809 - Ecological Statistics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Directed toward graduate students with previous introductory statistical experience, this class covers common statistical methods used in ecology. The class includes classroom and computer lab components (using the R statistical computing environment) and provides students with the practical experience necessary to make decisions regarding the treatment and analysis of data, interpretation of statistical analyses and the presentation of study results. This course has one 2-hour lecture and one 2-hour laboratory per week. pre-req: IBS or WRS grad student or instructor consent
BIOL 5833 - Stream Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Studies of stream communities and ecosystems as influenced by biological interactions and physical factors. Emphasis on North Shore streams. (2 hrs lect, 6 hrs lab and field) prereq: 2801 or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5861 - Lake Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
This course offers a hands-on introduction to the ecology of lake ecosystems with a focus on lakes of the temperate and boreal regions, particularly Minnesota. We explore how factors including temperature, light, water chemistry, water motion, nutrients, and organisms interact in aquatic environments to determine the distribution, abundance, and behavior of aquatic biota. Laboratory exercises reinforce and expand on lecture materials and include the identification of fish, zooplankton, benthos, and phytoplankton as well as field excursions to area lakes. prereq: WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5863 - Ecosystems Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: BIOL 5863/EES 5863
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Ecosystems ecology is the integrated study of the flows of materials and energy through ecosystems, which includes both the living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components. Biogeochemistry is a major subfield of ecosystems ecology, and deals with the cycling of nutrients through ecosystems. In this class, we will discuss the integration of ecosystmes and biogeochemistry in terrestrial environments, specifically focusing on how human activities influence ecological systems and vice versa. It is my hope that you walk away from this course with a better understanding of how large environmental issues such as climate change and invasive species affect ecological systems. pre-req: BIOL 2801, CHEM 1153 or CHEM 1173 or graduate student
BIOL 5870 - Wetland Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Hydrology, nutrient cycling, and productivity of wetland ecosystems and the adaptations and interactions of resident biota; assessment, management, conservation, restoration, and creation of wetlands. Two daylong weekend field trips required. prereq: 2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student
CE 4213 - Open Channel Hydraulics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
The course will review energy and momentum principles and apply these to hydraulic engineering works such as man-made channels, dams, harbors, and bridges. Principles of sediment transport in alluvial channels will be considered in the context of designing engineered structures. pre-req: CE 3225 or instructor consent
CE 4215 - Hydraulic Design
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Application of hydraulic and hydrologic engineering data and methods for design of hydraulic structures including storm sewers, conveyance channels, flow control structures, detention and wet ponds, culverts, bridges, and dams. This course will make use of computer simulation models used in engineering design and include applications to stormwater managements. prereq: 3225, no Grad credit
CE 4228 - Watershed Engineering
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Basic principles in hydrologic modeling and concepts of watershed delineation, land use change impact, case studies, and modeling tools are discussed and applied to natural and urban watersheds. The course will utilize hydraulic and hydrologic models and GIS tools for engineering design. pre-req: CE 3225 or instructor consent
CE 5203 - Stream Crossing and Culvert Design
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Overview of road-stream crossing design with emphasis on stream simulation for aquatic organism passage. Includes field data collection, analysis, and design of road-stream crossings, and traditional culvert hydraulic analysis and design. Meets concurrently with 2 cr. GEOL course (GEOL 5603) that excludes culvert hydraulic analysis and design. pre-req: CE 3225 or grad student; instructor consent
CE 5216 - Applications in Environmental Modeling
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Theory and application of environmental chemodynamics. Transport processes and equilibrium across natural phases including water, air, and soil using analytical and numerical modeling approaches. Economic and reliability analysis for hydrosystems using linear and non-linear programming with applications to water supply and water excess engineering. prereq: graduate status or instructor consent
CE 5237 - Water Quality Engineering
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Applied analysis of water quality in natural systems. Review of mass-transport processes and approaches for solving water quality problems in lakes, estuaries, rivers, groundwater, and soil-sediment with TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) and remediation design applications. Applications in water and wastewater treatment. prereq: 3025 or CHE 2001 or grad student or instructor consent
CE 5241 - Water Chemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Water is critical component of environmental systems, and the chemistry that occurs in water is a rich subject. This class focuses on water chemistry in both natural and engineered systems. Topics include a review of thermodynamics and equilibrium, acids and bases, titrations, the carbonate system, solubility of minerals, metal ion complexation, oxidation/reduction chemistry, and descriptions of adsorption. Principles are applied to chemistry in water treatment, nutrient cycling, organic matter, and organic pollutants. Both chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics are explored. Students will be introduced to software that can be used to solve water chemistry problems. The class is targeted at seniors and graduate students. pre-req: CE 3025 or CHEM 1155, or graduate student or instructor consent
CE 5246 - Environmental Remediation Technologies
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
The course examines the principal applications and limitations of technologies designed for source control and removal of contaminants from soil, groundwater, and surface water. Topics include: introduction to hazardous waste, contaminant characteristics, a review of mass transport, partitioning and fate of contaminants, site characterization/assessment, regulatory requirement, the design and operation of current remediation technologies, advances in technological design, and emerging remediation technologies including biotechnology and nanotechnology. pre-req: CE, WRS, IBS graduate students or instructor consent
CHEM 5150 - Organic and Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Production and chemical composition of natural organic matter (OM), diagenesis and catagenesis of OM; stable isotopic fractionation processes of C, H, O, N, and S in natural systems, fractionation theory, isotopic indicators of climate, oceanographic/limnologic processes, trophic structure, microbial processes. prereq: BIOL 1012 and (CHEM 1152 or 1155 and 1156 or 1162 or 1175 and 1176) and (CHEM 2222 or 2212 or 2242) OR instructor consent
CHEM 5212 - Advanced Environmental Chemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Quantitative, advanced study of chemical processes in the natural environment. This course will cover the chemistry of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, focusing on the sources, fluxes, cycling, reactions, and transformation of natural and anthropogenic chemicals. pre-req: graduate student, credit will not be granted if already received for CHEM 4212.
EES 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Lim 5103/5002/EES 5103
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Geological aspects of freshwater systems: origins, tectonic and climatic settings of lakes, geophysical mapping, physical sedimentary processes, sedimentary geochemistry, and geochronology. Particular focus on paleolimnology, the analysis of lake sediment to reconstruct past climate and environment prereq: MATH 1296 or 1596, PHYS 1002 or 2015 or 2018, CHEM 1155 or 1175 or grad student; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL or LIM 5103
EES 5201 - Watershed Hydrology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ESCI 5201/EES 5201
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
This is an upper-division hydrology course covering the hydrologic cycle in the context of wildland watersheds. The course will cover the major components of the hydrologic cycle, including precipitation, snow hydrology, canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, soil water storage, runoff, streamflow and groundwater flow. The impacts of watershed management on water quantity and quality will be discussed using regional, national, and global examples, with an emphasis on solving real-world problems using hydrologic datasets. This course includes a 2-hour lab that meets once per week. pre-req: MATH 1290 or 1296 or grad student; no credit granted if already received for EES or ESCI or GEOL 4201 or ESCI or GEOL 5201
EES 5210 - Glacial and Quaternary Geology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Physics of glacier flow, processes of erosion and deposition, survey of glacial landforms, history and chronology of glaciation. Survey of geological and biological responses to changing environment resulting from climatic fluctuations during last three million years of Earth history. Field studies on the glacial deposits of Minnesota. (2 hrs lect, 2 hrs field lab) prereq: EES or GEOL 1110 or 1610 or GEOG 1414 and PHYS 1001 or 2013 or 2017 and MATH 1290 or 1286; or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 4210 or 5210
EES 5220 - Advances in Paleoclimatology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
Analysis of past global change from climate proxy records in glacial ice, tree rings, ocean and lake sediments, ocean corals. Impact of ocean and atmospheric circulation on global climate; climate cycles; El Nino; human impact on global climate. Offered alternate years. prereq: instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 5220
EES 5250 - Hydrogeology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
A quantitative introduction to hydrogeology and aquifer mechanics with emphasis on environmental applications, including, unsaturated flow, interaction between surface water and groundwater, wellhead protection, well hydraulics, inverse methods, and solute transport. Offered alternate years. prereq: Math 1290 or 1296 amd PHYS 1002 or 2013 or 2017; or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for EES or GEOL 4250 or GEOL 5250
EES 5260 - Fluvial Geomorphology
Credits: 3.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Fluvial geomorphology covers the physical processes operating in stream channels and watersheds including watershed-scale hydrology and topography; reach-scale fluid mechanics and sediment transport; and channel patterns, forms, and classification systems. Other topics included will be river history, human alterations to rivers, and river restoration efforts. prereq: (MATH 1290 or 1296) and (PHYS 1001 or 2013 or 2017) and (EES or ESCI or GEOL 2010 or EES or GEOL 3520 GEOL 3420) or graduate student standing; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 5260
EES 5601 - Introduction to Stream Restoration
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
This course provides an interdisciplinary overview of the background science essential to participate in a stream restoration project. Students will learn how to assimilate geologic hydrologic, and ecological data at the watershed and research scales to plan a restoration project and evaluate/critique existing stream restoration projects. prereq: Math 1290 or 1296 or 1596, PHYS 1001 or 2013 or 2017, minimum 60 credits or graduate student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 5601
EES 5603 - Stream Crossing Design
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Overview of road-stream crossing design with emphasis on stream simulation for aquatic organism passage. Includes field data collection, analysis, and design of road-stream crossings. Meets concurrently with CE 5203. CE 5203 includes additional work on traditional culvert hydraulics and design. pre-req: EES or GEOL 3210 or 3420 or 5260 or 5601 or BIOL 5833 or CE 3225 and instructor consent ; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 5603
EES 8602 - Stream Restoration Practice
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: S-N or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Practicum course provides the capstone for the Stream Restoration Science & Engineering post-baccalaureate certificate program. Students synthesize previous coursework on stream restoration, apply basic hydraulic and geomorphic analyses on a reach of a stream, and complete a group design for a stream restoration site. prereq: EES or GEOL 5601 and instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 8602
GEOG 4446 - Water Processes and Management
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Introduction to the surface water processes and water resources management, including precipitation, runoff generation, channel processes, spatial and temporal variations in water distribution, aspects of water quantity and quality, and watershed management problems. Prereq: Geog 1414 or Geol 1110 or Graduate students or Instructor consent.
GIS 5572 - Environmental Application of GIS
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Explore GIS applications to the environmental issues such as natural hazards, forest management, contaminated sites, soil erosion, habitat assessment, and regional planning. Prereq: 3563 or 4565 or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOG 5572.
LIM 5010 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
An interdisciplinary introduction to the science of Limnology taught at the beginning graduate student level. The science of inland waters, Limnology, is built on Geology, Chemistry, Biology, and Physics and increasingly includes Social Sciences. In this course, students will experience an in-depth, integrated approach to Limnology. Lake systems are emphasized but wetland and running water systems are discussed. The course includes significant out of class time reviewing on-line modules and other materials. In-class time is devoted mainly to group work, problem solving, and student-led discussions and presentations. An optional companion laboratory and practice course (LIM 5011) is associated with this course where additional foundational and fundamental limnological techniques are taught. pre-req: graduate student or instructor consent
LIM 5011 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
A graduate-level laboratory and discussion course with an interdisciplinary introduction to Limnology. This class will introduce students to laboratory, field, data collection, and data analysis techniques in the study of limnology. Introductory coding will be covered. Oral and written communication skills and problem solving skills will also be developed. This course is designed to be taken in conjunction with LIM 5010, Limnology I. pre-req: pre or co-req LIN 5010, grad student or instructor consent
LIM 5012 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Continuing from LIM 5010, this is the second semester of an interdisciplinary introduction to the science of Limnology taught at the beginning graduate student level. The science of inland waters, Limnology, is built on Geology, Chemistry, Biology, and Physics and increasingly includes Social Sciences. Students will experience an indepth, integrated approach to Limnology. Lake systems are emphasized but wetland and running water systems are discussed. The course includes significant out of class time reviewing on-line modules and other materials. In-class time is devoted mainly to group work, solving real-world problems, and student-led discussions and presentations. An optional companion laboratory and practice course (LIM 5013) is associated with this course where additional foundational and fundamental limnological techniques are taught. pre-req: LIM 5010 or instructor consent
LIM 5013 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
A second semester of the graduate-level laboratory and discussion course with an interdisciplinary introduction to Limnology. This class will introduce students to laboratory, field, data collection, and data analysis techniques in the study of limnology. Introductory coding will be covered. Oral and written communication skills and problem solving skills will also be developed. The second half of this semester will be spent working with industry and non-profit community partners on a capstone project, emphasizing the use of newly acquired skills and knowledge in a non-academic setting. pre-req: LIM 5010 or instructor consent
LIM 5101 - Physical Limnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: LIM 5101/5001
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Physical description of lake dynamics including: lake morphometry, water budget, light distribution, circulation, fronts, waves and mixing. Descriptive, mathematical, numerical and data-analysis techniques are used to investigate the various topics. prereq: Math 1297, Phys 2012 or 2015 and 2016, or grad student
LIM 5102 - Chemical Limnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Organic and inorganic chemistry of natural waters, major and minor ions, pH-Eh relationships, carbon and nutrient cycles, pore water chemistry, sediment chemistry, microbial geochemistry. Offered alternate years. prereq: Math 1296, Phys 1002 or 1202, Chem 1152 or 1162, or grad student; Credit will not be granted if already received for 5001
LIM 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Lim 5103/5002/EES 5103
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Geological aspects of freshwater systems: origins, tectonic and climatic settings of lakes, geophysical mapping, physical sedimentary processes, sedimentary geochemistry, and geochronology. Particular focus on paleolimnology, the analysis of lake sediment to reconstruct past climate and environment prereq: MATH 1290 or 1296 or 1596, PHYS 1002 or 2015 or 2018, CHEM 1155 or 1175 or grad student
LIM 5105 - Research Frontiers and New Directions in Limnology and Environmental Science
Credits: 1.0 [max 1.0]
Grading Basis: S-N or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
An interdisciplinary graduate seminar with dual goal of reviewing most significant current developments in limnological science and helping students identify most significant knowledge gaps in their disciplinary research fields. The course involves guest lectures, student presentations and discussions. It aims to provide students with guidance on choosing research directions to achieve an optimal balance between difficulty and scientific payoff. prereq: Graduate student or instructor permission
PHYS 5541 - Fluid Dynamics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
Analytic and numeric treatment of dynamics of fluids. Rotating, stratified fluids, with applications in limnology, oceanography, and meteorology. prereq: 2022 or 2001, Math 3280
WRS 8888 - Thesis Credits: Doctoral
Credits: 1.0 -24.0 [max 100.0]
Grading Basis: No Grade
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
(No description) prereq: Max 18 cr per semester or summer; 24 cr required
LIM 5010 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
An interdisciplinary introduction to the science of Limnology taught at the beginning graduate student level. The science of inland waters, Limnology, is built on Geology, Chemistry, Biology, and Physics and increasingly includes Social Sciences. In this course, students will experience an in-depth, integrated approach to Limnology. Lake systems are emphasized but wetland and running water systems are discussed. The course includes significant out of class time reviewing on-line modules and other materials. In-class time is devoted mainly to group work, problem solving, and student-led discussions and presentations. An optional companion laboratory and practice course (LIM 5011) is associated with this course where additional foundational and fundamental limnological techniques are taught. pre-req: graduate student or instructor consent
LIM 5011 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
A graduate-level laboratory and discussion course with an interdisciplinary introduction to Limnology. This class will introduce students to laboratory, field, data collection, and data analysis techniques in the study of limnology. Introductory coding will be covered. Oral and written communication skills and problem solving skills will also be developed. This course is designed to be taken in conjunction with LIM 5010, Limnology I. pre-req: pre or co-req LIN 5010, grad student or instructor consent
LIM 5013 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
A second semester of the graduate-level laboratory and discussion course with an interdisciplinary introduction to Limnology. This class will introduce students to laboratory, field, data collection, and data analysis techniques in the study of limnology. Introductory coding will be covered. Oral and written communication skills and problem solving skills will also be developed. The second half of this semester will be spent working with industry and non-profit community partners on a capstone project, emphasizing the use of newly acquired skills and knowledge in a non-academic setting. pre-req: LIM 5010 or instructor consent
WRS 5101 - Water Policy
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CE 5201/WRS 5101
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Socio-cultural, legal, and economic factors that affect water resources management. Historical trends in water policy, resulting water laws in the United States. Federal state and local institutional structures for water management. prereq: Grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for CE 5201
WRS 8581 - Research and Professional Ethics in Water Resources and Environmental Science
Credits: 0.5 [max 0.5]
Grading Basis: S-N only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Ethics of water resources science and environmental engineering research/practice. Societal responsibility, plagiarism, record-keeping, authorship, confidentiality, conflicts of interest, professional relationships, fraud, reporting misconduct. prereq: Graduate student
WRS 8100 - Interdisciplinary Seminar in Water Resources
Credits: 0.5 -3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: S-N only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Interdisciplinary seminar in water resources science. prereq: Graduate student
BIOL 4761 - Ichthyology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Physiologic, taxonomic, ecologic, economic, and behavioral aspects of fishes. Lab emphasis on fishes of Great Lakes region, including field conducted independent study. (2 hrs lect, 3 hrs lab, field) prereq: 2801 or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5201 - Leverage bioinformatic tools to manage big data and answer primary biology questions
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Biology has moved into a new era of big data, especially in the field of genomics. This course will introduce basic principles of bioinformatics and how to apply bioinformatic tools to process large genomic datasets. This course will emphasize how to evaluate currently available software, implement software, build pipelines for analysis, interpret outputs, apply statistics and finally produce publication appropriate figures. pre-req: BIOL 2201 or grad student
BIOL 5801 - Microbial Ecology
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Microorganisms in natural environments: diversity, distribution, energetics, and growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic microbes in oxic and anoxic habitats. Roles of microbial populations and communities in biogeochemical cycling, ecosystem functioning, landscapes, and industrial, agricultural, and environmental applications. prereq: (2101 or 3100) and (2801 or 3502 or 4501), or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5805 - Fisheries Ecology and Management
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Lectures, readings and computer exercises relating to current issues in fisheries ecology. Computer exercises will emphasize techniques used by scientists working in the field and prepare the student for the use of quantitative research tools for independent research. Includes 2 one-hour lectures and 1 three-hour lab weekly. prereq: 2801, 2802, college-level course in statistics or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5808 - Landscape Ecology: Theory and Application
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Key issues in landscape ecology including scale, measuring landscape patterns, mechanisms shaping landscapes, implications of landscape patterns on plant and animal populations, communities, and ecosystems, and implementing landscape principles for natural resource management. prereq: 2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5809 - Ecological Statistics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Directed toward graduate students with previous introductory statistical experience, this class covers common statistical methods used in ecology. The class includes classroom and computer lab components (using the R statistical computing environment) and provides students with the practical experience necessary to make decisions regarding the treatment and analysis of data, interpretation of statistical analyses and the presentation of study results. This course has one 2-hour lecture and one 2-hour laboratory per week. pre-req: IBS or WRS grad student or instructor consent
BIOL 5833 - Stream Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Studies of stream communities and ecosystems as influenced by biological interactions and physical factors. Emphasis on North Shore streams. (2 hrs lect, 6 hrs lab and field) prereq: 2801 or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5861 - Lake Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
This course offers a hands-on introduction to the ecology of lake ecosystems with a focus on lakes of the temperate and boreal regions, particularly Minnesota. We explore how factors including temperature, light, water chemistry, water motion, nutrients, and organisms interact in aquatic environments to determine the distribution, abundance, and behavior of aquatic biota. Laboratory exercises reinforce and expand on lecture materials and include the identification of fish, zooplankton, benthos, and phytoplankton as well as field excursions to area lakes. prereq: WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5863 - Ecosystems Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: BIOL 5863/EES 5863
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Ecosystems ecology is the integrated study of the flows of materials and energy through ecosystems, which includes both the living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components. Biogeochemistry is a major subfield of ecosystems ecology, and deals with the cycling of nutrients through ecosystems. In this class, we will discuss the integration of ecosystmes and biogeochemistry in terrestrial environments, specifically focusing on how human activities influence ecological systems and vice versa. It is my hope that you walk away from this course with a better understanding of how large environmental issues such as climate change and invasive species affect ecological systems. pre-req: BIOL 2801, CHEM 1153 or CHEM 1173 or graduate student
BIOL 5870 - Wetland Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Hydrology, nutrient cycling, and productivity of wetland ecosystems and the adaptations and interactions of resident biota; assessment, management, conservation, restoration, and creation of wetlands. Two daylong weekend field trips required. prereq: 2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student
CE 4213 - Open Channel Hydraulics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
The course will review energy and momentum principles and apply these to hydraulic engineering works such as man-made channels, dams, harbors, and bridges. Principles of sediment transport in alluvial channels will be considered in the context of designing engineered structures. pre-req: CE 3225 or instructor consent
CE 4215 - Hydraulic Design
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Application of hydraulic and hydrologic engineering data and methods for design of hydraulic structures including storm sewers, conveyance channels, flow control structures, detention and wet ponds, culverts, bridges, and dams. This course will make use of computer simulation models used in engineering design and include applications to stormwater managements. prereq: 3225, no Grad credit
CE 4228 - Watershed Engineering
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Basic principles in hydrologic modeling and concepts of watershed delineation, land use change impact, case studies, and modeling tools are discussed and applied to natural and urban watersheds. The course will utilize hydraulic and hydrologic models and GIS tools for engineering design. pre-req: CE 3225 or instructor consent
CE 5203 - Stream Crossing and Culvert Design
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Overview of road-stream crossing design with emphasis on stream simulation for aquatic organism passage. Includes field data collection, analysis, and design of road-stream crossings, and traditional culvert hydraulic analysis and design. Meets concurrently with 2 cr. GEOL course (GEOL 5603) that excludes culvert hydraulic analysis and design. pre-req: CE 3225 or grad student; instructor consent
CE 5216 - Applications in Environmental Modeling
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Theory and application of environmental chemodynamics. Transport processes and equilibrium across natural phases including water, air, and soil using analytical and numerical modeling approaches. Economic and reliability analysis for hydrosystems using linear and non-linear programming with applications to water supply and water excess engineering. prereq: graduate status or instructor consent
CE 5237 - Water Quality Engineering
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Applied analysis of water quality in natural systems. Review of mass-transport processes and approaches for solving water quality problems in lakes, estuaries, rivers, groundwater, and soil-sediment with TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) and remediation design applications. Applications in water and wastewater treatment. prereq: 3025 or CHE 2001 or grad student or instructor consent
CE 5241 - Water Chemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Water is critical component of environmental systems, and the chemistry that occurs in water is a rich subject. This class focuses on water chemistry in both natural and engineered systems. Topics include a review of thermodynamics and equilibrium, acids and bases, titrations, the carbonate system, solubility of minerals, metal ion complexation, oxidation/reduction chemistry, and descriptions of adsorption. Principles are applied to chemistry in water treatment, nutrient cycling, organic matter, and organic pollutants. Both chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics are explored. Students will be introduced to software that can be used to solve water chemistry problems. The class is targeted at seniors and graduate students. pre-req: CE 3025 or CHEM 1155, or graduate student or instructor consent
CE 5246 - Environmental Remediation Technologies
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
The course examines the principal applications and limitations of technologies designed for source control and removal of contaminants from soil, groundwater, and surface water. Topics include: introduction to hazardous waste, contaminant characteristics, a review of mass transport, partitioning and fate of contaminants, site characterization/assessment, regulatory requirement, the design and operation of current remediation technologies, advances in technological design, and emerging remediation technologies including biotechnology and nanotechnology. pre-req: CE, WRS, IBS graduate students or instructor consent
CHEM 5150 - Organic and Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Production and chemical composition of natural organic matter (OM), diagenesis and catagenesis of OM; stable isotopic fractionation processes of C, H, O, N, and S in natural systems, fractionation theory, isotopic indicators of climate, oceanographic/limnologic processes, trophic structure, microbial processes. prereq: BIOL 1012 and (CHEM 1152 or 1155 and 1156 or 1162 or 1175 and 1176) and (CHEM 2222 or 2212 or 2242) OR instructor consent
CHEM 5212 - Advanced Environmental Chemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Quantitative, advanced study of chemical processes in the natural environment. This course will cover the chemistry of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, focusing on the sources, fluxes, cycling, reactions, and transformation of natural and anthropogenic chemicals. pre-req: graduate student, credit will not be granted if already received for CHEM 4212.
EES 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Lim 5103/5002/EES 5103
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Geological aspects of freshwater systems: origins, tectonic and climatic settings of lakes, geophysical mapping, physical sedimentary processes, sedimentary geochemistry, and geochronology. Particular focus on paleolimnology, the analysis of lake sediment to reconstruct past climate and environment prereq: MATH 1296 or 1596, PHYS 1002 or 2015 or 2018, CHEM 1155 or 1175 or grad student; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL or LIM 5103
EES 5201 - Watershed Hydrology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ESCI 5201/EES 5201
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
This is an upper-division hydrology course covering the hydrologic cycle in the context of wildland watersheds. The course will cover the major components of the hydrologic cycle, including precipitation, snow hydrology, canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, soil water storage, runoff, streamflow and groundwater flow. The impacts of watershed management on water quantity and quality will be discussed using regional, national, and global examples, with an emphasis on solving real-world problems using hydrologic datasets. This course includes a 2-hour lab that meets once per week. pre-req: MATH 1290 or 1296 or grad student; no credit granted if already received for EES or ESCI or GEOL 4201 or ESCI or GEOL 5201
EES 5210 - Glacial and Quaternary Geology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Physics of glacier flow, processes of erosion and deposition, survey of glacial landforms, history and chronology of glaciation. Survey of geological and biological responses to changing environment resulting from climatic fluctuations during last three million years of Earth history. Field studies on the glacial deposits of Minnesota. (2 hrs lect, 2 hrs field lab) prereq: EES or GEOL 1110 or 1610 or GEOG 1414 and PHYS 1001 or 2013 or 2017 and MATH 1290 or 1286; or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 4210 or 5210
EES 5220 - Advances in Paleoclimatology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
Analysis of past global change from climate proxy records in glacial ice, tree rings, ocean and lake sediments, ocean corals. Impact of ocean and atmospheric circulation on global climate; climate cycles; El Nino; human impact on global climate. Offered alternate years. prereq: instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 5220
EES 5250 - Hydrogeology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
A quantitative introduction to hydrogeology and aquifer mechanics with emphasis on environmental applications, including, unsaturated flow, interaction between surface water and groundwater, wellhead protection, well hydraulics, inverse methods, and solute transport. Offered alternate years. prereq: Math 1290 or 1296 amd PHYS 1002 or 2013 or 2017; or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for EES or GEOL 4250 or GEOL 5250
EES 5260 - Fluvial Geomorphology
Credits: 3.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Fluvial geomorphology covers the physical processes operating in stream channels and watersheds including watershed-scale hydrology and topography; reach-scale fluid mechanics and sediment transport; and channel patterns, forms, and classification systems. Other topics included will be river history, human alterations to rivers, and river restoration efforts. prereq: (MATH 1290 or 1296) and (PHYS 1001 or 2013 or 2017) and (EES or ESCI or GEOL 2010 or EES or GEOL 3520 GEOL 3420) or graduate student standing; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 5260
EES 5601 - Introduction to Stream Restoration
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
This course provides an interdisciplinary overview of the background science essential to participate in a stream restoration project. Students will learn how to assimilate geologic hydrologic, and ecological data at the watershed and research scales to plan a restoration project and evaluate/critique existing stream restoration projects. prereq: Math 1290 or 1296 or 1596, PHYS 1001 or 2013 or 2017, minimum 60 credits or graduate student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 5601
EES 5603 - Stream Crossing Design
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Overview of road-stream crossing design with emphasis on stream simulation for aquatic organism passage. Includes field data collection, analysis, and design of road-stream crossings. Meets concurrently with CE 5203. CE 5203 includes additional work on traditional culvert hydraulics and design. pre-req: EES or GEOL 3210 or 3420 or 5260 or 5601 or BIOL 5833 or CE 3225 and instructor consent ; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 5603
EES 8602 - Stream Restoration Practice
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: S-N or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Practicum course provides the capstone for the Stream Restoration Science & Engineering post-baccalaureate certificate program. Students synthesize previous coursework on stream restoration, apply basic hydraulic and geomorphic analyses on a reach of a stream, and complete a group design for a stream restoration site. prereq: EES or GEOL 5601 and instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOL 8602
GEOG 4446 - Water Processes and Management
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Introduction to the surface water processes and water resources management, including precipitation, runoff generation, channel processes, spatial and temporal variations in water distribution, aspects of water quantity and quality, and watershed management problems. Prereq: Geog 1414 or Geol 1110 or Graduate students or Instructor consent.
GIS 5572 - Environmental Application of GIS
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Explore GIS applications to the environmental issues such as natural hazards, forest management, contaminated sites, soil erosion, habitat assessment, and regional planning. Prereq: 3563 or 4565 or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOG 5572.
LIM 5010 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
An interdisciplinary introduction to the science of Limnology taught at the beginning graduate student level. The science of inland waters, Limnology, is built on Geology, Chemistry, Biology, and Physics and increasingly includes Social Sciences. In this course, students will experience an in-depth, integrated approach to Limnology. Lake systems are emphasized but wetland and running water systems are discussed. The course includes significant out of class time reviewing on-line modules and other materials. In-class time is devoted mainly to group work, problem solving, and student-led discussions and presentations. An optional companion laboratory and practice course (LIM 5011) is associated with this course where additional foundational and fundamental limnological techniques are taught. pre-req: graduate student or instructor consent
LIM 5011 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
A graduate-level laboratory and discussion course with an interdisciplinary introduction to Limnology. This class will introduce students to laboratory, field, data collection, and data analysis techniques in the study of limnology. Introductory coding will be covered. Oral and written communication skills and problem solving skills will also be developed. This course is designed to be taken in conjunction with LIM 5010, Limnology I. pre-req: pre or co-req LIN 5010, grad student or instructor consent
LIM 5012 - Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Continuing from LIM 5010, this is the second semester of an interdisciplinary introduction to the science of Limnology taught at the beginning graduate student level. The science of inland waters, Limnology, is built on Geology, Chemistry, Biology, and Physics and increasingly includes Social Sciences. Students will experience an indepth, integrated approach to Limnology. Lake systems are emphasized but wetland and running water systems are discussed. The course includes significant out of class time reviewing on-line modules and other materials. In-class time is devoted mainly to group work, solving real-world problems, and student-led discussions and presentations. An optional companion laboratory and practice course (LIM 5013) is associated with this course where additional foundational and fundamental limnological techniques are taught. pre-req: LIM 5010 or instructor consent
LIM 5013 - Laboratory and Discussion in Integrated Approaches to the Study of Inland Waters II
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
A second semester of the graduate-level laboratory and discussion course with an interdisciplinary introduction to Limnology. This class will introduce students to laboratory, field, data collection, and data analysis techniques in the study of limnology. Introductory coding will be covered. Oral and written communication skills and problem solving skills will also be developed. The second half of this semester will be spent working with industry and non-profit community partners on a capstone project, emphasizing the use of newly acquired skills and knowledge in a non-academic setting. pre-req: LIM 5010 or instructor consent
LIM 5101 - Physical Limnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: LIM 5101/5001
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Physical description of lake dynamics including: lake morphometry, water budget, light distribution, circulation, fronts, waves and mixing. Descriptive, mathematical, numerical and data-analysis techniques are used to investigate the various topics. prereq: Math 1297, Phys 2012 or 2015 and 2016, or grad student
LIM 5102 - Chemical Limnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Organic and inorganic chemistry of natural waters, major and minor ions, pH-Eh relationships, carbon and nutrient cycles, pore water chemistry, sediment chemistry, microbial geochemistry. Offered alternate years. prereq: Math 1296, Phys 1002 or 1202, Chem 1152 or 1162, or grad student; Credit will not be granted if already received for 5001
LIM 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Lim 5103/5002/EES 5103
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Geological aspects of freshwater systems: origins, tectonic and climatic settings of lakes, geophysical mapping, physical sedimentary processes, sedimentary geochemistry, and geochronology. Particular focus on paleolimnology, the analysis of lake sediment to reconstruct past climate and environment prereq: MATH 1290 or 1296 or 1596, PHYS 1002 or 2015 or 2018, CHEM 1155 or 1175 or grad student
LIM 5105 - Research Frontiers and New Directions in Limnology and Environmental Science
Credits: 1.0 [max 1.0]
Grading Basis: S-N or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
An interdisciplinary graduate seminar with dual goal of reviewing most significant current developments in limnological science and helping students identify most significant knowledge gaps in their disciplinary research fields. The course involves guest lectures, student presentations and discussions. It aims to provide students with guidance on choosing research directions to achieve an optimal balance between difficulty and scientific payoff. prereq: Graduate student or instructor permission
PHYS 5541 - Fluid Dynamics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
Analytic and numeric treatment of dynamics of fluids. Rotating, stratified fluids, with applications in limnology, oceanography, and meteorology. prereq: 2022 or 2001, Math 3280