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Twin Cities Campus

Pharmacology Minor

College of Biological Sciences - Adm
College of Biological Sciences
  • Program Type: Undergraduate free-standing minor
  • Requirements for this program are current for Fall 2019
  • Required credits in this minor: 20 to 22
Pharmacology studies how drugs affect biological systems. It is the foundation of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, nursing, and other health care professions. Pharmacology employs scientific principles and techniques of its own, as well as from disciplines such as physiology, biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology, genetics, structural biology, and pathology. The objectives of pharmacology include identifying new targets for therapeutic intervention, developing new therapeutics, and understanding environmental/toxicological implications.
Program Delivery
This program is available:
  • via classroom (the majority of instruction is face-to-face)
Admission Requirements
A GPA above 2.0 is preferred for the following:
  • 2.50 already admitted to the degree-granting college
  • 2.50 transferring from another University of Minnesota college
  • 2.50 transferring from outside the University
For information about University of Minnesota admission requirements, visit the Office of Admissions website.
Required prerequisites
Prerequisite courses
These courses are prerequisites to required minor coursework.
BIOL 1009 - General Biology [BIOL] (4.0 cr)
or BIOL 1951 - Foundations of Biology Lecture I for Biological Sciences Majors [BIOL] (4.0 cr)
BIOL 1961 - Foundations of Biology Lab I for Biological Sciences Majors [BIOL] (2.0 cr)
or BIOL 1951H - Foundations of Biology Lecture I for Biological Sciences Majors [BIOL] (4.0 cr)
BIOL 1961H - Foundations of Biology Lab I for Biological Sciences Majors [BIOL] (2.0 cr)
CHEM 1065 - Chemical Principles I Laboratory [PHYS] (1.0 cr)
CHEM 1061 - Chemical Principles I [PHYS] (3.0 cr)
or CHEM 1081 - Chemistry for the Life Sciences I [PHYS] (3.0 cr)
or CHEM 1071H - Honors Chemistry I [PHYS] (3.0 cr)
CHEM 1075H - Honors Chemistry I Laboratory [PHYS] (1.0 cr)
Minor Requirements
Students who wish to declare a minor in pharmacology can do so online at the College of Biological Sciences website. The minor requires a minimum of 12 credits.
Pharmacology Minor Required Courses
PHCL 3100 - Pharmacology for Pre-Med and Life Science Students (2.0 cr)
PHCL 2001 - Basic Principles of Pharmacology: A Drug's Fantastic Voyage (2.0 cr)
or PHCL 4001 - Mechanisms of Drug Action (2.0 cr)
Pharmacology Elective Courses
Take 5 - 8 credit(s) from the following:
· PHCL 4001 - Mechanisms of Drug Action (2.0 cr)
· PHCL 4003 - Anti-infective drugs: Drugs that kill invaders (2.0 cr)
· PHCL 4010 - Current Research Topics in Pharmacology (2.0 cr)
· PHCL 4020 - Chemotherapy: from current anticancer drugs to future cancer therapeutics (3.0 cr)
· PHCL 4100 - Laboratory in Molecular Pharmacology (2.0 cr)
· PHCL 4343 - Pharmacology of the Synapse (3.0 cr)
· PHCL 5111 - Pharmacogenomics (3.0 cr)
Directed Research, Directed Study, or Additional Coursework
Take 0 - 3 credit(s) from the following:
· PHCL 4994 - Directed Research (1.0-3.0 cr)
· PHCL 4993 - Directed Studies (1.0-3.0 cr)
· PHSL 3xxx
· PHSL 4xxx
· PHSL 5xxx
· BIOC 4xxx
· BIOC 5xxx
· BIOL 3xxx
· BIOL 4xxx
· BIOL 5xxx
· NSCI 4xxx
· NSCI 5xxx
· GCD 4xxx
· PMB 4111 - Microbial Physiology and Diversity (3.0 cr)
· PMB 4121 - Microbial Ecology and Applied Microbiology (3.0 cr)
· MICB 4131 - Immunology (3.0 cr)
· MICB 4151 - Molecular and Genetic Bases for Microbial Diseases (3.0 cr)
· MICB 4161W - Eukaryotic Microbiology [WI] (3.0 cr)
· MICB 4171 - Biology, Genetics, and Pathogenesis of Viruses (3.0 cr)
 
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BIOL 1009 - General Biology (BIOL)
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01525 - Biol 1009/Biol 1009H
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
A comprehensive introduction to biology - includes molecular structure of living things, cell processes, energy utilization, genetic information and inheritance, mechanisms of evolution, biological diversity, and ecology. Includes lab. This comprehensive course serves as a prerequisite and requirement in many majors.
BIOL 1951 - Foundations of Biology Lecture I for Biological Sciences Majors (BIOL)
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01361 - Biol 1951/H/Biol 2002/H
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Core biological concepts, from biomolecules to ecosystems. Emphasizes evolution, organismal diversity, and genetics within context of problem solving/applications. prereq: [[CHEM 1021 or 1061 or 1081 or equiv], CBS major] or dept consent; calculus I or equiv recommended
BIOL 1961 - Foundations of Biology Lab I for Biological Sciences Majors (BIOL)
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Core biological concepts, from biomolecules to ecosystems. Emphasizes evolution, organismal diversity, and genetics within context of problem solving/applications. prereq: [[CHEM 1021 or 1061 or 1081 or equiv], CBS major]or dept consent; prereq or coreq [Biol 1951 or 1951H], calculus I or equiv recommended
BIOL 1951H - Foundations of Biology Lecture I for Biological Sciences Majors (BIOL)
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01361
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Core biological concepts, from biomolecules to ecosystems. Emphasizes evolution, organismal diversity, and genetics within context of problem solving/applications. prereq: [[CHEM 1021 or 1061 or 1081 or equiv], CBS major] or dept consent; calculus I or equiv recommended
BIOL 1961H - Foundations of Biology Lab I for Biological Sciences Majors (BIOL)
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Core biological concepts, from biomolecules to ecosystems. Emphasizes evolution, organismal diversity, and genetics within context of problem solving/applications. prereq: [[CHEM 1021 or 1061 or 1081 or equiv], CBS major] or dept consent; prereq or coreq: [Biol 1951 or Biol 1951H]; calculus I or equiv recommended
CHEM 1065 - Chemical Principles I Laboratory (PHYS)
Credits: 1.0 [max 1.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01878 - Chem 1065/Chem 1075H
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Basic laboratory skills while investigating physical and chemical phenomena closely linked to lecture material. Experimental design, data collection and treatment, discussion of errors, and proper treatment of hazardous wastes. prereq: concurrent registration is required (or allowed) in 1061
CHEM 1061 - Chemical Principles I (PHYS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01884 - Chem 1061/Chem 1071H
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Atomic theory, periodic properties of elements. Thermochemistry, reaction stoichiometry. Behavior of gases, liquids, and solids. Molecular/ionic structure/bonding. Organic chemistry and polymers. energy sources, environmental issues related to energy use. Prereq-Grade of at least C- in [1011 or 1015] or [passing placement exam, concurrent registration is required (or allowed) in 1065]; intended for science or engineering majors; concurrent registration is required (or allowed) in 1065; registration for 1065 must precede registration for 1061
CHEM 1081 - Chemistry for the Life Sciences I (PHYS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01884 - Chem 1061/Chem 1071H/Chem 1081
Typically offered: Every Fall
The topics of atomic theory, molecular structure, bonding and shape, energy and enthalpy, gases, properties of solutions, and equilibrium will be presented along with their application to biological systems. Intended to provide a strong chemistry background for students pursuing life science related majors or careers in life science related fields. prereq: grade of a C- or better in CHEM 1015 or passing chemistry placement exam. This course is recommended for CBS majors.
CHEM 1071H - Honors Chemistry I (PHYS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01884 - Chem 1061/Chem 1071H
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Advanced introduction to atomic theory. Periodic properties of elements. Behavior of gases, liquids, and solids. Molecular/ionic structure, bonding. Aspects of organic chemistry, spectroscopy, and polymers. Mathematically demanding quantitative problems. Writing for scientific journals. prereq: Honors student, permission of University Honors Program, concurrent registration is required (or allowed) in 1075H; registration for 1075H must precede registration for 1071H
CHEM 1075H - Honors Chemistry I Laboratory (PHYS)
Credits: 1.0 [max 1.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01878 - Chem 1065/Chem 1075H
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Develop laboratory skills while investigating physical and chemical phenomena closely linked to lecture material. Experimental design, data collection and treatment, discussion of errors, and the proper treatment of hazardous wastes. Prereq-&1071H, honors student, permission of University Honors Program.
PHCL 3100 - Pharmacology for Pre-Med and Life Science Students
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Principles/mechanisms of drug action. Major drug categories for different organ systems. prereq: College-level biology, biochemistry or physiology recommended
PHCL 2001 - Basic Principles of Pharmacology: A Drug's Fantastic Voyage
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Basic principles of pharmacology affecting drug from administration through action/elimination. prereq: First-year chemistry
PHCL 4001 - Mechanisms of Drug Action
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
How drugs function as applied to the treatment of a single medical condition. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics. prereq: Upper div or instr consent; [prev or concurrent] courses in [biology, biochemistry] recommended
PHCL 4001 - Mechanisms of Drug Action
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
How drugs function as applied to the treatment of a single medical condition. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics. prereq: Upper div or instr consent; [prev or concurrent] courses in [biology, biochemistry] recommended
PHCL 4003 - Anti-infective drugs: Drugs that kill invaders
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Principles/mechanisms of anti-infective drugs, and treatments of infectious diseases. prereq: College-level biology
PHCL 4010 - Current Research Topics in Pharmacology
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Cutting-edge research projects in pharmacology. Research seminars, literature studies, discussion sessions, oral presentations. prereq: Upper div or instr consent
PHCL 4020 - Chemotherapy: from current anticancer drugs to future cancer therapeutics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Prerequisites: College-level biology: PHCL 2001 and/or PHCL3100, GCD4151 recommended.
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
This course will expose students to the studies of therapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer. We will study the mechanisms of current anticancer drugs. We will also explore the recent development of novel anticancer agents, as well as the process of drug discovery & development. prereq: College-level biology: PHCL 2001 and/or PHCL3100, GCD4151 recommended.
PHCL 4100 - Laboratory in Molecular Pharmacology
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Hands-on experimentation using molecular techniques for data collection/analysis. prereq: [2001 or 4001], 3100, [BioC 3021 or BioC 4331], [BioC 4025, BioC 4125 recommended]
PHCL 4343 - Pharmacology of the Synapse
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Study synapse as pharmacological gateway to nervous system. Explore physiology of/cellular signalling at synapse, how signalling influences conditions such as Parkinson's disease, depression, anxiety, pain, addiction. How various drugs modify signalling at synapse. recommend: [PHCL 2001, PHCL 3100]
PHCL 5111 - Pharmacogenomics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Human genetic variation, its implications. Functional genomics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics, proteomics. Interactive, discussion-based course. prereq: Grad student or instr consent Keywords: Pharmacology, Pharmacogenomics, Toxicogenomics, Proteomics, Genetics, Drug
PHCL 4994 - Directed Research
Credits: 1.0 -3.0 [max 12.0]
Grading Basis: S-N only
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Laboratory research ("wet lab" experience) in the areas of pharmacological/biomedical research. prereq: instr consent, dept consent
PHCL 4993 - Directed Studies
Credits: 1.0 -3.0 [max 6.0]
Grading Basis: S-N only
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Individual study ("dry lab" experience) on selected topics in pharmacology/biomedical science with faculty from the Pharmacology Department or other biomedicine disciplines. Readings and use of scientific literature. prereq: instr consent, dept consent
PMB 4111 - Microbial Physiology and Diversity
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 02535 - PMB 4111/PMB 5111
Typically offered: Every Fall
Structural/functional organization of bacteria/archaea. Energy metabolism utilizing light, inorganic/organic chemicals. Cell morphologies, roles/assembly of surface structures. Growth/survival mechanisms in various extreme environments. Adaptation to changing conditions by development of specialized cells/structures, altering metabolic patterns. prereq: MicB 3301 required; BioC 3021 or BioC 4331 recommended
PMB 4121 - Microbial Ecology and Applied Microbiology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Evolution/structure of microbial communities. Population interaction within ecosystems. Quantitative/habitat ecology. Biogeochemical cycling. Molecular microbial ecology, gene transfer in the environment. Molecular phylogeny of microorganisms. Application of microbes in agriculture. Production of commodity chemicals, drugs, and other high-value products. prereq: 3301
MICB 4131 - Immunology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01727 - MicB 4131/VPM 4131
Typically offered: Every Fall
Molecular, genetic and cellular basis for innate and adaptive immune responses. The immune systems role in; transplantation, autoimmune disease, cancer immunotherapy, vaccinololgy, acquired and genetic immunodeficiencies. recommended prereqs: microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology
MICB 4151 - Molecular and Genetic Bases for Microbial Diseases
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Spring
Genetic basis of microbial pathogenesis. Effect of gene transfer and regulation on evolution of microbial pathogens and capacity to colonize, induce disease. Biochemical and cellular interactions between bacteria and human hosts. prereq: MicB 3301 and (Biol 4003 or Biol 3020) required; MicB 4131 recommended
MICB 4161W - Eukaryotic Microbiology (WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Cell biology of higher eukaryotes, animal/plant pathogenesis, evolution, industrial microbiology. Tetrahymena/Chlamydomons/Paramecium/Toxoplasma/Aspergillus/ Neurospora. prereq: 3301, [GCD 3022 or Biol 4003]
MICB 4171 - Biology, Genetics, and Pathogenesis of Viruses
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 00875
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Structure, attachment, entry. Genome replication/mRNA production by RNA viruses. Reverse transcription. DNA virus templates. Replication of DNA virus genomes. Processing of viral pre-mRNA. Translational control. Assembly, host defense, tumor viruses, pathogenesis, HIV, antivirals. prereq: [MicB 3301 or Biol 4004] AND [Biol 3020 OR Biol 4003] AND [MicB 4131 or instr consent]; seats are prioritized for CBS majors (others who meet the course prerequisites can contact the instructor for permission)