Twin Cities campus
 
Twin Cities Campus

Geography Minor

Geography, Environment, Society
College of Liberal Arts
  • Program Type: Undergraduate minor related to major
  • Requirements for this program are current for Spring 2022
  • Required credits in this minor: 14
The study of Geography answers the need in our society for an integrated, critical understanding of the world's peoples, cultures, and societies, as well as its environments and landscapes, natural and human made - at every scale from neighborhoods and cities, to regions, countries, and around the earth itself. A minor in geography is an excellent accompaniment to majors in the social sciences, humanities, natural sciences and technical disciplines. With a minor in geography, students will develop a spatial way of thinking about world and local problems that is grounded in the idea that where things happen, and how places are connected, shape the way that human and natural systems function. It can help students build a nuanced understanding of cities, climate, the global economy, human impacts on the environment, social inequality among other issues. Students may also take courses in the geographic information sciences and build skills in spatial analysis and digital mapping. Students may develop a specialization in human/social geography, environmental geography, or spatial analysis, or may combine courses of interest to create a unique area of specialization.
Program Delivery
This program is available:
  • via classroom (the majority of instruction is face-to-face)
Minor Requirements
Students may earn up to one undergraduate degree in the geography program: a BA, a BS, or a minor. Students in the Geography BA or minor may combine those programs with a major or minor in Urban Studies, or the other departmental minors, Public Health and Geographic Information Science.
Electives
Take 14 or more credit(s) from the following:
· GEOG 3101 - Geography of the United States and Canada [SOCS, TS] (4.0 cr)
· GEOG 3111 - Geography of Minnesota (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3161 - Europe: A Geographic Perspective [GP] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3211 - East Asia (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3371W - Cities, Citizens, and Communities [DSJ, WI] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3373 - Changing Form of the City [HIS, GP] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3376 - Political Ecology of North America [ENV] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3377 - Music in the City [DSJ, AH] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3379 - Environment and Development in the Third World [SOCS, ENV] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3381W - Population in an Interacting World [SOCS, GP, WI] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3388 - Going Places: Geographies of Travel and Tourism [CIV] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3401 - Geography of Environmental Systems and Global Change [ENV] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3411W - Geography of Health and Health Care [WI] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3423 - Urban Climatology (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3511 - Principles of Cartography (4.0 cr)
· GEOG 3541 - Principles of Geocomputing (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3573 - Introduction to Digital Mapping: ArcGIS Basis (2.0 cr)
· GEOG 3605 - Geographic Perspectives on Planning (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3896 - Internship for Academic Credit (1.0-4.0 cr)
· GEOG 3900 - Topics in Geography (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3973 - Geography of the Twin Cities [SOCS] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3992 - Directed Reading (1.0-8.0 cr)
· GEOG 3993 - Directed Studies (1.0-8.0 cr)
· GEOG 3994 - Directed Research (1.0-8.0 cr)
· GEOG 4001 - Modes of Geographic Inquiry (4.0 cr)
· GEOG 4002W - Environmental Thought and Practice [WI] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3362 - Geography and Real Estate (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 5385 - Globalization and Development: Political Economy (4.0 cr)
· GEOG 5393 - Rural Landscapes and Environments (4.0 cr)
· GEOG 5426 - Climatic Variations (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 5530 - Cartography Internship (2.0-7.0 cr)
· GEOG 5531 - Numerical Spatial Analysis (4.0 cr)
· GEOG 5543 - Advanced Geocomputing (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 5562 - GIS Development Practicum (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 5563 - Advanced Geographic Information Science (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 5564 - Urban Geographic Information Science and Analysis (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 5588 - Advanced Geovisualization (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 5900 - Topics in Geography (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3145 - The Islamic World [SOCS, GP] (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3711 - The Islamic World [SOCS, GP] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3331 - Geography of the World Economy [SOCS, GP] (3.0 cr)
or GLOS 3231 - Geography of the World Economy [SOCS, GP] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3361W - Geography and Public Policy [WI] (3.0 cr)
or BSE 3361W - Geography and Public Policy [WI] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3374W - The City in Film [AH, WI] (4.0 cr)
or GEOG 5374 - The City in Film (4.0 cr)
· GEOG 3431 - Plant and Animal Geography (3.0 cr)
or GEOG 5431 - Plant and Animal Geography (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3531 - Numerical Spatial Analysis (4.0 cr)
or GEOG 5531 - Numerical Spatial Analysis (4.0 cr)
· GEOG 3561 - Principles of Geographic Information Science (4.0 cr)
or GEOG 5561 - Principles of Geographic Information Science (4.0 cr)
· GEOG 3839 - Introduction to Dendrochronology (3.0 cr)
or GEOG 5839 - Introduction to Dendrochronology (3.0 cr)
 
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GEOG 3101 - Geography of the United States and Canada (SOCS, TS)
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3101/3102
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Analysis of the ways in which the aspirations and abilities of diverse groups of people interact with the complexities of the natural environment to produce the contemporary pluralistic cultures and regional differentiation of the United States and Canada.
GEOG 3111 - Geography of Minnesota
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Spring & Summer
The evolution of Minnesota and its current geographical characteristics. The state is a unique political entity that possesses similarities with other states because of the homogenizing influence of the federal government.
GEOG 3161 - Europe: A Geographic Perspective (GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3161/GLoS 3921
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Comparative analysis and explanation of Europe's physical, demographic, ethnic/cultural, economic, political, and urban landscapes. European integration--the European Union. Transformation of Eastern Europe.
GEOG 3211 - East Asia
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3211/3215/5211/5215
Typically offered: Periodic Fall, Spring & Summer
Physical and human geography of Japan, mainland China and Taiwan, North and South Korea; population pressure, economic and urban development, and international relations.
GEOG 3371W - Cities, Citizens, and Communities (DSJ, WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Introduction to cities and suburbs as unique crossroads of cultural, social, and political processes. Competing/conflicting visions of city life, cultural diversity, and justice. Focuses on the American city.
GEOG 3373 - Changing Form of the City (HIS, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Spring
Urban origins, ancient cultures/cities, the medieval city, rediscovery of planning, colonial cities. Industrialization and urban expansion. Speculative cities, utopian cities, planning triumphs/disasters. Cities as reflections of society, culture, the past.
GEOG 3376 - Political Ecology of North America (ENV)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall
Social production of nature in North America related to questions of social/environmental justice. Economic, political, cultural, ecological relations that shape specific urban/rural environments, social movements that have arisen in response to environmental change. Importance of culture/identity in struggles over resources/environments.
GEOG 3377 - Music in the City (DSJ, AH)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Geographical conceptions of place, space, embodiment, identity. Case studies of music.
GEOG 3379 - Environment and Development in the Third World (SOCS, ENV)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3379/GloS 3303
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Concepts for analyzing relations between capitalist development and environment in Third World. Historical geography of capitalist development. Case studies. Likelihood of social/environmental sustainability. prereq: Soph or jr or sr
GEOG 3381W - Population in an Interacting World (SOCS, GP, WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3381W/GLOS 3701W
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Comparative analysis and explanation of trends in fertility, mortality, internal and international migration in different parts of the world; world population problems; population policies; theories of population growth; impact of population growth on food supply and the environment.
GEOG 3388 - Going Places: Geographies of Travel and Tourism (CIV)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Global flows of tourism from perspective of debates about consumption, development, identity, and the environment. Close reading, field trips, discussion of films, research paper.
GEOG 3401 - Geography of Environmental Systems and Global Change (ENV)
Credits: 3.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3401/5401
Typically offered: Every Spring
Geographic patterns, dynamics, and interactions of atmospheric, hydrospheric, geomorphic, pedologic, and biologic systems as context for human population, development, and resource use patterns.
GEOG 3411W - Geography of Health and Health Care (WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall
Application of human ecology, spatial analysis, political economy, and other geographical approaches to analyze problems of health and health care. Topics include distribution and diffusion of disease; impact of environmental, demographic, and social change on health; distribution, accessibility, and utilization of health practitioners and facilities.
GEOG 3423 - Urban Climatology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Spring
Urban climatology focuses on how cities modify the local environment. Initial focus is on urban energy balance as the basis of most urban-climate research. The course also explores how atmospheric composition, urban hydrology, and urban ecosystems affect the urban climate, and how urban climates are linked to regional and global climate change.
GEOG 3511 - Principles of Cartography
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3511/Geog 5511
Typically offered: Every Spring
History and development of US academic cartography, coordinate systems and map projections, data classification and map generalization, methods of thematic symbolization, and cartographic design. A series of computer-based lab exercises will apply conceptual lecture material to the creation of thematic maps. prereq: 3 cr in geog or instr consent
GEOG 3541 - Principles of Geocomputing
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3541/Geog 5541
Typically offered: Every Spring
The availability of computing infrastructures such as high-performance and cloud computing, high-speed networks, and rich data has led to a new scientific paradigm using computational approaches, termed computational science. Geocomputation is the "application of a computational science paradigm to study a wide range of problems in geographical and earth systems (the geo) contexts" (Openshaw, 2014). This course will introduce students to geocomputation as well as related areas including big spatial data, and cyberinfrastructure. Students will engage in hands-on exercises learning principles and best-practices in geocomputing. The ability to program is an essential skill for GIScientists. Learning to program takes time and a lot of practice, and in this course students will learn how to develop programs in the Python programming language to solve geospatial problems.
GEOG 3573 - Introduction to Digital Mapping: ArcGIS Basis
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3573/GIS 5573
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Desktop mapping functions using ArcGIS software. Application of systems to display/analysis of geographical data.
GEOG 3605 - Geographic Perspectives on Planning
Credits: 3.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall
The purpose of this course is to introduce the students to the discipline of urban planning, and to the various challenges planning has aimed to respond during its history. How and why did cities come into being before the invention of modern urban planning? What were the challenges that modern urban planning arose to encounter in the late 20th century? How have the planning challenges changed since then, and how have planning tools and planning systems evolved since the early 21st century in different countries? During the course, we will also discuss the role of planning in contemporary society, asking who needs planning and why. How does planning respond to political struggles and conflicts of interests in cities today? Furthermore, we will reflect on the academic status of urban planning and ask: to what extent can planning be based on knowledge and theory? To answer these questions, we will study history of planning, get acquainted with the basics of planning theory, and look at various international examples of planning systems and planning practice drawn from a variety of international settings, the main focus being on US, UK, and mainland Europe.
GEOG 3896 - Internship for Academic Credit
Credits: 1.0 -4.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
An applied learning experience in an agreed-upon, short-term, supervised workplace activity, with defined goals, which may be related to a student's major field or area of interest. The work can be full or part time, paid or unpaid, primarily in off-campus environments. Internships integrate classroom knowledge and theory with practical application and skill development in professional or community settings. The skills and knowledge learned should be transferable to other employment settings and not simply to advance the operations of the employer. Typically the studentís work is supervised and evaluated by a site coordinator or instructor.
GEOG 3900 - Topics in Geography
Credits: 3.0 [max 9.0]
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Special topics/regions covered by visiting professors in their research fields.
GEOG 3973 - Geography of the Twin Cities (SOCS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 1973W/3973
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Social/physical characteristics of Twin Cities. Their place in U.S. urban network.
GEOG 3992 - Directed Reading
Credits: 1.0 -8.0 [max 12.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Guided individual reading. Prereq-instr consent, dept consent, college consent.
GEOG 3993 - Directed Studies
Credits: 1.0 -8.0 [max 12.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Guided individual study. Prereq-instr consent, dept consent, college consent.
GEOG 3994 - Directed Research
Credits: 1.0 -8.0 [max 12.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Individual guided research. Prereq instr consent, dept consent, college consent.
GEOG 4001 - Modes of Geographic Inquiry
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Examination of competing approaches to the study of geography. Environmental determinism; regional tradition; scientific revolution; behavioral geography; modeling and quantitative geography; radical geography; interpretive and qualitative approaches; feminist and postmodern geography; ecological thinking and complexity; geographic ethics.
GEOG 4002W - Environmental Thought and Practice (WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Changing conceptions of nature, culture, and environment in Western social/political thought. How our understanding of humans/nonhumans has been transformed by scientific and technological practices. Interdisciplinary, reading intensive. prereq: Jr or sr
GEOG 3362 - Geography and Real Estate
Credits: 3.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Every Spring
Through lectures involving professionals working in the real estate business, field trips, and personal research the course examines the nature and history of real property ("land") ownership in the United States with special reference to Minnesota. The focus will be on the mechanistic, legalistic, and historic characteristics of ownership rather than the uses to which real property has been put or the philosophical, sociological, or economic aspects of ownership or use. More attention will be paid to the published and unpublished primary materials that characterize the nature of land ownership than to the secondary literature.
GEOG 5385 - Globalization and Development: Political Economy
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Nature/scope of modern world system (capitalism), its impact on regional development processes. Roles of state and of international financial institutions. prereq: Sr or grad or instr consent
GEOG 5393 - Rural Landscapes and Environments
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Every Spring
Analysis of three principal components of rural landscape (form of land surface, plant life that cloaks it, structures that people have placed upon it). Structures associated with agriculture, including mining, forestry, resort areas, and small towns.
GEOG 5426 - Climatic Variations
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Theories of climatic fluctuations and change at decadal to centuries time scales; analysis of temporal and spatial fluctuations especially during the period of instrumental record. prereq: 1425 or 3401 or instr consent
GEOG 5530 - Cartography Internship
Credits: 2.0 -7.0 [max 10.0]
Grading Basis: S-N or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Provides intensive hands-on experience in contemporary map production and design, ranging from GIS applications to digital prepress. Strong computer skills essential. prereq: instr consent
GEOG 5531 - Numerical Spatial Analysis
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3531/5531
Typically offered: Every Fall
Applied/theoretical aspects of geographical quantitative methods for spatial analysis. Emphasizes analysis of geographical data for spatial problem solving in human/physical areas.
GEOG 5543 - Advanced Geocomputing
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall
The availability of computing infrastructures such as high-performance and cloud computing, highspeed networks, and rich data has led to a new scientific paradigm using computational approaches, termed computational science. Geocomputation is the "application of a computational science paradigm to study a wide range of problems in geographical and earth systems (the geo) contexts" (Openshaw, 2014). This course will delve into advanced topics in geocomputation as well as related areas ranging from geographic information and spatial big data to cyberinfrastructure and parallel computation. Students will engage in hands-on exercises learning principles and best practices in geocomputing while using cutting-edge computational infrastructures.
GEOG 5562 - GIS Development Practicum
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Prerequisites: GIS 5571 or #
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Algorithms/data structures for digital cartographic data, topological relationships, surface modeling, and interpolation. Map projections, geometric transformations, numerical generalization, raster/vector processing. Hands-on experience with software packages. prereq: GIS 5571 or instr consent
GEOG 5563 - Advanced Geographic Information Science
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Advanced study of geographic information systems (GIS). Topics include spatial data models, topology, data encoding, data quality, database management, spatial analysis tools and visualization techniques. Hands-on experience using an advanced vector GIS package. prereq: B or better in 3561 or 5561 or instr consent
GEOG 5564 - Urban Geographic Information Science and Analysis
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Core concepts in urban geographic information science including sources for urban geographical and attribute data (including census data), urban data structures (focusing on the TIGER data structure), urban spatial analyses (including location-allocation models), geodemographic analysis, network analysis, and the display of urban data. prereq: 3561 or 5561
GEOG 5588 - Advanced Geovisualization
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall
The generation and use of geographic information has become an integral part of our daily life, science, and technology. This has led to increasing interest in the design and development of interactive maps and dynamic geographic visualizations in 2D, 3D, and Web environments. The Advanced Geovisualization course intends to equip students with the knowledge and advanced technical skills needed to design and implement effective maps and create dynamic and interactive visualizations using geospatial data sets.
GEOG 5900 - Topics in Geography
Credits: 3.0 [max 9.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Special topics and regions. Course offered by visiting professors in their research fields.
GEOG 3145 - The Islamic World (SOCS, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3145/GloS 3645/RelS 3711
Typically offered: Every Fall
Foundation of Islam in Arabian Peninsula, its spread to Asia and Africa. Islamic civilization, influence on Europe before rise of capitalism. Rise of Capitalist Europe, colonization of Islamic World Islamic resurgence and post-colonial world. State-society and development. Culture/conflict in Moslem societies. Gender and Islam. Islamic World and the West. Moslems in North America and Europe. Case studies.
RELS 3711 - The Islamic World (SOCS, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3145/GloS 3645/RelS 3711
Typically offered: Every Fall
Foundation of Islam in Arabian Peninsula, its spread to Asia and Africa. Islamic civilization, influence on Europe. Rise of capitalism, colonization. Islamic resurgence. State-society and development. Culture/conflict in Moslem societies. Gender and Islam. Islam and the West. Case studies.
GEOG 3331 - Geography of the World Economy (SOCS, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3331/GloS 3231
Typically offered: Every Fall
Geographical distribution of resources affecting development; location of agriculture, industry, services; geography of communications; agglomeration of economic activities, urbanization, regional growth; international trade; changing global development inequalities; impact of globalizing production and finance on the welfare of nations, regions, and cities.
GLOS 3231 - Geography of the World Economy (SOCS, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3331/GloS 3231
Typically offered: Every Fall
Geographical distribution of resources affecting development. Location of agriculture, industry, services. Agglomeration of economic activities, urbanization, regional growth. International trade. Changing global development inequalities. Impact on nations, regions, cities.
GEOG 3361W - Geography and Public Policy (WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: BSE 3361W/Geog 3361W
Typically offered: Every Fall
Nature/effects of federal policy in the United States. How documents produced as policy are crafted/implemented. Policies relating to food/agriculture, forestry, wildlife, and transportation.
BSE 3361W - Geography and Public Policy (WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: BSE 3361W/Geog 3361W
Typically offered: Every Fall
Nature/effects of federal policy in United States. How documents produced as policy are crafted/implemented. Policies relating to food/agriculture, forestry, wildlife, transportation.
GEOG 3374W - The City in Film (AH, WI)
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3374W/3374V/5374W
Typically offered: Every Spring
Cinematic portrayal of changes in 20th-century cities worldwide including social and cultural conflict, political and economic processes, changing gender relationships, rural versus urban areas, and population and development issues (especially as they affect women and children).
GEOG 5374 - The City in Film
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3374W/3374V/5374W
Typically offered: Every Spring
Cinematic portrayal of changes in 20th-century cities worldwide. Social/cultural conflict, political/economic processes, changing gender relationships, rural versus urban areas, population/development issues (especially as they affect women/children). Meets concurrently with 3374. Additional weekly meeting discusses films, readings. Project on a topic selected in consultation with instructor. prereq: grad student or instr consent
GEOG 3431 - Plant and Animal Geography
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3431/5431
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Introduction to biogeography. Focuses on patterns of plant/animal distributions at different scales over time/space. Evolutionary, ecological, and applied biogeography. Paleobiogeography, vegetation-environment relationships, vegetation dynamics/disturbance ecology, human impact on plants/animals, nature conservation. Discussions, group/individual projects, local field trips.
GEOG 5431 - Plant and Animal Geography
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3431/5431
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Introduction to biogeography. Focuses on patterns of plant/animal distributions at different scales over time/space. Evolutionary, ecological, and applied biogeography. Paleobiogeography, vegetation-environment relationships, vegetation dynamics/disturbance ecology, human impact on plants/animals, nature conservation. Discussions, group/individual projects, local field trips.
GEOG 3531 - Numerical Spatial Analysis
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3531/5531
Typically offered: Every Fall & Summer
Introduction to theoretical and applied aspects of geographical quantitative methods with a focus on spatial analysis. Emphasis placed on the analysis of geographical data for spatial problem solving in both the human and physical areas of the discipline.
GEOG 5531 - Numerical Spatial Analysis
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3531/5531
Typically offered: Every Fall
Applied/theoretical aspects of geographical quantitative methods for spatial analysis. Emphasizes analysis of geographical data for spatial problem solving in human/physical areas.
GEOG 3561 - Principles of Geographic Information Science
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3561/ Geog 5561
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Introduction to study of geographic information systems (GIS) for geography and non-geography students. Topics include GIS application domains, data models and sources, analysis methods and output techniques. Lectures, readings and hands-on experience with GIS software. prereq: Jr or sr
GEOG 5561 - Principles of Geographic Information Science
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3561/ Geog 5561
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Introduction to the study of geographic information systems (GIS) for geography and non-geography students. Topics include GIS application domains, data models and sources, analysis methods and output techniques. Lectures, reading, and hands-on experience with GIS software. prereq: grad
GEOG 3839 - Introduction to Dendrochronology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall
Historical development, operational techniques, biological background, and principles of tree ring analysis. Applications of tree-ring data to investigate environmental change and past cultures. prereq: [1403, [BIOL 1001 or BIOL 1009 or equiv]] or instr consent
GEOG 5839 - Introduction to Dendrochronology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Geog 3839/Geog 5839
Typically offered: Every Fall
Historical development, operational techniques, biological background, and principles of tree ring analysis. Applications of tree-ring data to investigate environmental change and past cultures. prereq: [1403, [BIOL 1001 or BIOL 1009 or equiv]] or instr consent