Twin Cities campus
 
Twin Cities Campus

Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology Minor

Classical and Near Eastern Religions and Cultures
College of Liberal Arts
  • Students will no longer be accepted into this program after Fall 2020. Program requirements below are for current students only.
  • Program Type: Undergraduate free-standing minor
  • Requirements for this program are current for Fall 2022
  • Required credits in this minor: 18 to 19
The minor allows students to concentrate their studies on the material remains from the ancient civilizations of the Near East, Greece, Rome and their neighbors from prehistory to late antiquity. The minor includes courses from the Departments of Classical and Near Eastern Studies, Anthropology, and Art History.
Program Delivery
This program is available:
  • via classroom (the majority of instruction is face-to-face)
Minor Requirements
Preparatory Courses
Other courses may count towards the Preparatory Courses requirement with director of undergraduate studies approval.
Take exactly 1 course(s) totaling 3 - 4 credit(s) from the following:
· CNRC 3103 - Ancient Greece: Alexander and the East [HIS] (3.0 cr)
· CNES 3104 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
· CNRC 3106 - Ancient Rome: The Age of Nero (3.0 cr)
· ANTH 3001 - Introduction to Archaeology [SOCS] (4.0 cr)
· CNRC 3105 - Ancient Rome: The Age of Augustus (3.0 cr)
· CNRC 1201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible. [LITR] (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible [LITR] (3.0 cr)
or JWST 1201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible [LITR] (3.0 cr)
or JWST 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible [LITR] (3.0 cr)
or RELS 1201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible [LITR] (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3201 -  The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible [LITR] (3.0 cr)
· ANTH 3009 - Prehistoric Pathways to World Civilizations [HIS] (3.0 cr)
or HIST 3066 - Prehistoric Pathways to World Civilization [HIS] (3.0 cr)
· ANTH 3028 - Historical Archaeology (3.0 cr)
or ANTH 5028 - Historical Archaeology (3.0 cr)
· CNES 3108 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3541 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
· ARTH 3152 - Art and Archaeology of Ancient Greece [HIS] (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 3152 - Art and Archaeology of Ancient Greece [HIS] (3.0 cr)
· ARTH 3162 - Roman Art and Archaeology [HIS] (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 3162 - Roman Art and Archaeology [HIS] (3.0 cr)
· ARTH 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia [AH, GP] (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia [AH, GP] (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia [AH, GP] (3.0 cr)
Electives
One course must be taken from each group. The remaining 3 credits can be taken from any group, or may also come from a 6-credit course.
Take exactly 5 course(s) totaling 15 or more credit(s) from the following:
Group 1 - Culture
Take 1 or more course(s) totaling 3 or more credit(s) from the following:
· CNRC 3103 - Ancient Greece: Alexander and the East [HIS] (3.0 cr)
· CNES 3104 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
· CNRC 3106 - Ancient Rome: The Age of Nero (3.0 cr)
· CNRC 3105 - Ancient Rome: The Age of Augustus (3.0 cr)
· CNRC 3601W - Sexuality and Gender in Ancient Greece and Rome [AH, WI] (3.0 cr)
· CNRC 3061 - "Bread and Circuses:" Spectacles and Mass Culture in Antiquity [HIS, CIV] (3.0 cr)
or HIST 3061 - "Bread and Circuses": Spectacles and Mass Culture in Antiquity [HIS, CIV] (3.0 cr)
· CNRC 3071 - Greek and Hellenistic Religions [HIS] (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 5071 - Greek and Hellenistic Religions (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3071 - Greek and Hellenistic Religions [HIS] (3.0 cr)
or RELS 5071 - Greek and Hellenistic Religions (3.0 cr)
· CNES 3108 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3541 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
· CNRC 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible [LITR] (3.0 cr)
or JWST 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible [LITR] (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3201 -  The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible [LITR] (3.0 cr)
· CNES 3204 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 5204 - The Dead Sea Scrolls (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3204 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
or RELS 5204 - The Dead Sea Scrolls (3.0 cr)
· CNRC 3535 - Death and the Afterlife in the Ancient World [AH] (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3535 - Death and the Afterlife in the Ancient World [AH] (3.0 cr)
· Group 2 - Archaeology
Take 1 or more course(s) totaling 3 or more credit(s) from the following:
· ANTH 3001 - Introduction to Archaeology [SOCS] (4.0 cr)
· ANTH 5442 - Archaeology of the British Isles (3.0 cr)
· ANTH 5444 {Inactive} (4.0 cr)
· ANTH 3009 - Prehistoric Pathways to World Civilizations [HIS] (3.0 cr)
or HIST 3066 - Prehistoric Pathways to World Civilization [HIS] (3.0 cr)
· ANTH 3027W - Archaeology of Prehistoric Europe [HIS, WI] (3.0 cr)
or ANTH 5027W - Archaeology of Prehistoric Europe [HIS, WI] (3.0 cr)
or HIST 3067W - Archaeology of Prehistoric Europe [HIS, WI] (3.0 cr)
· ANTH 3028 - Historical Archaeology (3.0 cr)
or ANTH 5028 - Historical Archaeology (3.0 cr)
· Group 3 - History of Art
Take 1 or more course(s) totaling 3 or more credit(s) from the following:
· ARTH 5115 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
· ARTH 5785 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
· ARTH 3152 - Art and Archaeology of Ancient Greece [HIS] (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 3152 - Art and Archaeology of Ancient Greece [HIS] (3.0 cr)
· ARTH 3162 - Roman Art and Archaeology [HIS] (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 3162 - Roman Art and Archaeology [HIS] (3.0 cr)
· ARTH 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia [AH, GP] (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia [AH, GP] (3.0 cr)
or RELS 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia [AH, GP] (3.0 cr)
· ARTH 5192 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
or CNES 5192 {Inactive} (3.0 cr)
· ARTH 5787 - Visual Cultures in Contact: Cross-Cultural Interaction in the Ancient and Early Medieval Worlds (3.0 cr)
or CNRC 5787 - Visual Cultures in Contact: Cross-Cultural Interaction in the Ancient and Early Medieval Worlds (3.0 cr)
· Group 4 - Practical Work
Take one of the following courses or an approved excavation, fieldwork or survey with a practical component (taken either as Directed Study or Study Abroad). Students seeking opportunities for excavation, survey and other fieldwork should seek out the Fieldwork Opportunities website of the Archaeological Institute of America: https://www.archaeological.org/fieldwork/afob/
Take 1 or more course(s) totaling 3 or more credit(s) from the following:
· ANTH 3221 - Field School (6.0 cr)
· ANTH 4007 - Laboratory Techniques in Archaeology (1.0-4.0 cr)
· ANTH 3008 - Introduction to Flintknapping (3.0 cr)
or ANTH 5008 - Advanced Flintknapping (3.0 cr)
· ANTH 3402 - Zooarchaeology Laboratory (3.0 cr)
or ANTH 5402 - Zooarchaeology Laboratory (3.0 cr)
 
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CNRC 3103 - Ancient Greece: Alexander and the East (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Achievements of Alexander the Great, their effect on Greek-speaking world. Greek colonization of Egypt. Hellenistic art, literature, philosophy.
CNRC 3106 - Ancient Rome: The Age of Nero
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
The Roman Empire. "Silver Age" of Latin literature, rise of Christianity. Art/architecture.
ANTH 3001 - Introduction to Archaeology (SOCS)
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall
Archaeology is the study of humans in the past, primarily through the material remains they left behind. It seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as ?When did humans first become dependent on fire??, ?What factors led to the development of agriculture??, or ?How can we explain the rise and fall of early civilizations?? The study of each of these big questions relies on answering many small questions that are asked in the context of archaeological excavations and laboratory analyses. A common theme underlies them: archaeology aims to reconstruct and understand why past human cultures changed. The goal of this class is to provide an understanding of the methods and techniques used by archaeologists in their investigations. It includes not only hands-on learning of specific analytical techniques, such as faunal and lithic analysis as well as site survey and excavation strategies, but also focuses on the theoretical approaches that guide the questions we ask and the methods we apply to answer them. This class, therefore, prepares students for more upper-level classes in archaeology. It also leads to a new way of thinking. This way of thinking is primarily critical and analytical. It leads one to think about how data are interpreted, and how theoretical frameworks as well as innate biases color these interpretations. Seeking solutions to interpretive problems requires the creative application of multidisciplinary approaches. Therefore, the study of archaeology leads to a new way of thinking about and doing science.
CNRC 3105 - Ancient Rome: The Age of Augustus
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
This course explores ancient Rome?s transformation from a democratic republic to an autocratic empire and the considerable implications this crucial shift has had for world history. It examines the fall of the Roman republic and the rise of Rome?s first emperor Augustus along with the vast cultural transformations in this age of revolution. Major issues include: Augustan art, architecture, and literature; political ideologies, propaganda, and resistance; gender, sexuality, and the family; Rome and Egypt, colonialism and cultural identity.
CNRC 1201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible. (LITR)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNRC1201/3201,JWST1201/3201,RE
Typically offered: Every Fall
The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are literary collections that modern Jewish and Christian traditions maintain as important, but these collections were initially produced by ancient Israelite scribes who composed and/or compiled the biblical texts at particular time periods in the ancient Near East. This course will introduce the academic study of biblical texts, which demands critical analysis of the literature and an openness to reading the literature from the perspective of ancient Israelite writers (who lived in a world far different from today). The course will spend considerable time on the literary (and scribal) composition of biblical prose texts; time will also be spent on the historical circumstances of biblical prophets and other writers of the biblical texts. This course will only address the ancient setting of the biblical texts and not re-interpretations in Jewish or Christian traditions. Given the scope of the course, modern interpretations of the biblical literature will not be discussed; we will only focus on this literature in its ancient setting. prereq: Knowledge of Hebrew not required
CNRC 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible (LITR)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNRC1201/3201,JWST1201/3201,RE
Typically offered: Every Fall
The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are literary collections that modern Jewish and Christian traditions maintain as important, but these collections were initially produced by ancient Israelite scribes who composed and/or compiled the biblical texts at particular time periods in the ancient Near East. This course will introduce the academic study of biblical texts, which demands critical analysis of the literature and an openness to reading the literature from the perspective of ancient Israelite writers (who lived in a world far different from today). The course will spend considerable time on the literary (and scribal) composition of biblical prose texts; time will also be spent on the historical circumstances of biblical prophets and other writers of the biblical texts. This course will only address the ancient setting of the biblical texts and not re-interpretations in Jewish or Christian traditions. Given the scope of the course, modern interpretations of the biblical literature will not be discussed; we will only focus on this literature in its ancient setting. prereq: Knowledge of Hebrew not required
JWST 1201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible (LITR)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNRC1201/3201,JWST1201/3201,RE
Typically offered: Every Fall
The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are literary collections that modern Jewish and Christian traditions maintain as important, but these collections were initially produced by ancient Israelite scribes who composed and/or compiled the biblical texts at particular time periods in the ancient Near East. This course will introduce the academic study of biblical texts, which demands critical analysis of the literature and an openness to reading the literature from the perspective of ancient Israelite writers (who lived in a world far different from today). The course will spend considerable time on the literary (and scribal) composition of biblical prose texts; time will also be spent on the historical circumstances of biblical prophets and other writers of the biblical texts. This course will only address the ancient setting of the biblical texts and not re-interpretations in Jewish or Christian traditions. Given the scope of the course, modern interpretations of the biblical literature will not be discussed; we will only focus on this literature in its ancient setting. prereq: Knowledge of Hebrew not required
JWST 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible (LITR)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNRC1201/3201,JWST1201/3201,RE
Typically offered: Every Fall
The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are literary collections that modern Jewish and Christian traditions maintain as important, but these collections were initially produced by ancient Israelite scribes who composed and/or compiled the biblical texts at particular time periods in the ancient Near East. This course will introduce the academic study of biblical texts, which demands critical analysis of the literature and an openness to reading the literature from the perspective of ancient Israelite writers (who lived in a world far different from today). The course will spend considerable time on the literary (and scribal) composition of biblical prose texts; time will also be spent on the historical circumstances of biblical prophets and other writers of the biblical texts. This course will only address the ancient setting of the biblical texts and not re-interpretations in Jewish or Christian traditions. Given the scope of the course, modern interpretations of the biblical literature will not be discussed; we will only focus on this literature in its ancient setting. prereq: Knowledge of Hebrew not required
RELS 1201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible (LITR)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNRC1201/3201,JWST1201/3201,RE
Typically offered: Every Fall
The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are literary collections that modern Jewish and Christian traditions maintain as important, but these collections were initially produced by ancient Israelite scribes who composed and/or compiled the biblical texts at particular time periods in the ancient Near East. This course will introduce the academic study of biblical texts, which demands critical analysis of the literature and an openness to reading the literature from the perspective of ancient Israelite writers (who lived in a world far different from today). The course will spend considerable time on the literary (and scribal) composition of biblical prose texts; time will also be spent on the historical circumstances of biblical prophets and other writers of the biblical texts. This course will only address the ancient setting of the biblical texts and not re-interpretations in Jewish or Christian traditions. Given the scope of the course, modern interpretations of the biblical literature will not be discussed; we will only focus on this literature in its ancient setting. prereq: Knowledge of Hebrew not required
RELS 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible (LITR)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNRC1201/3201,JWST1201/3201,RE
Typically offered: Every Fall
The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are literary collections that modern Jewish and Christian traditions maintain as important, but these collections were initially produced by ancient Israelite scribes who composed and/or compiled the biblical texts at particular time periods in the ancient Near East. This course will introduce the academic study of biblical texts, which demands critical analysis of the literature and an openness to reading the literature from the perspective of ancient Israelite writers (who lived in a world far different from today). The course will spend considerable time on the literary (and scribal) composition of biblical prose texts; time will also be spent on the historical circumstances of biblical prophets and other writers of the biblical texts. This course will only address the ancient setting of the biblical texts and not re-interpretations in Jewish or Christian traditions. Given the scope of the course, modern interpretations of the biblical literature will not be discussed; we will only focus on this literature in its ancient setting. prereq: Knowledge of Hebrew not required
ANTH 3009 - Prehistoric Pathways to World Civilizations (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3009/Anth 8009/Hist 3066
Typically offered: Every Spring
How did complex urban societies first develop? This course addresses this question in ten regions of the world including Maya Mesoamerica, Inca South America, Sumerian Near East, Shang Civilization in East Asia, and early Greece and Rome.
HIST 3066 - Prehistoric Pathways to World Civilization (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3009/Anth 8009/Hist 3066
Typically offered: Every Spring
How did complex urban societies first develop? This course addresses this question in ten regions of the world, including Maya Mesoamerica, Inca South America, Sumerian Near East, Shang Civilization in East Asia and early Greece and Rome.
ANTH 3028 - Historical Archaeology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3028/Anth 5028
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
In this course, we will explore the theories and methods of historical archaeology ? such as material culture studies, landscape perspectives, archival, and oral historical interpretation - as a means of intervening in contemporary discussions of diversity in the United States. Historical archaeology can be a very effective means to challenge some of the standard American narratives about our diverse past. Our aim is to move beyond either a simplistic ethnic pluralism or the superficial ?melting pot? progressive history and instead grapple with the materiality of settler colonialism, white supremacy, and capitalism. In learning about this field, we will consider what has distinguished historical archaeology from American archaeology more broadly, and how those differences are parlayed into specific research strengths. This includes several themes: colonialism; the modern world and globalizing economies; intersectional identities (race and ethnicity, class, sex and gender, religion, age, ability/disability) and social movements; public memory and commemoration; landscapes and social space; citizenship and subjectivity. Although historical archaeology until recently has been restrictively defined as addressing the European-colonized New World, the discipline in the past twenty years has significantly broadened its scope and impact on the practice of archaeology as a whole. Throughout the course we will discuss these developments, and what directions archaeology may take in the future as a result. Course work includes both reading/discussion and learning methods through practical exercises, and handling of archaeological material.
ANTH 5028 - Historical Archaeology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3028/Anth 5028
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
In this course, we will explore the theories and methods of historical archaeology ? such as material culture studies, landscape perspectives, archival, and oral historical interpretation - as a means of intervening in contemporary discussions of diversity in the United States. Historical archaeology can be a very effective means to challenge some of the standard American narratives about our diverse past. Our aim is to move beyond either a simplistic ethnic pluralism or the superficial ?melting pot? progressive history and instead grapple with the materiality of settler colonialism, white supremacy, and capitalism. In learning about this field, we will consider what has distinguished historical archaeology from American archaeology more broadly, and how those differences are parlayed into specific research strengths. This includes several themes: colonialism; the modern world and globalizing economies; intersectional identities (race and ethnicity, class, sex and gender, religion, age, ability/disability) and social movements; public memory and commemoration; landscapes and social space; citizenship and subjectivity. Although historical archaeology until recently has been restrictively defined as addressing the European-colonized New World, the discipline in the past twenty years has significantly broadened its scope and impact on the practice of archaeology as a whole. Throughout the course we will discuss these developments, and what directions archaeology may take in the future as a result. Course work includes both reading/discussion and learning methods through practical exercises, and handling of archaeological material.
ARTH 3152 - Art and Archaeology of Ancient Greece (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3152/CNES 3152
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
This course will provide an introduction to the history of Greek art, architecture and archaeology from the formation of the Greek city states in the ninth century BCE, through the expansion of Greek culture across the Mediterranean and Asia in the Hellenistic period, to the coming of Rome in the first century BCE. While this survey concentrates on the main developments of Greek art, an important sub-theme of this course this is the changes Classical visual culture underwent as it served non-Greek peoples, including the role it played for Alexander and his successors in forging multiethnic, globally minded empires in Western, Central and South Asia. No background in the time period or discipline is expected and therefore this class will also serve as an introduction to interdisciplinary study of art history and the classical world. A number of art historical methodologies will be introduced in order to not only give students a useful background in art history but to give them the tools to think as art historians and incorporate related visual and textual evidence meaningfully into their writing.
CNRC 3152 - Art and Archaeology of Ancient Greece (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3152/CNES 3152
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
This course will provide an introduction to the history of Greek art, architecture and archaeology from the formation of the Greek city states in the ninth century BCE, through the expansion of Greek culture across the Mediterranean and Asia in the Hellenistic period, to the coming of Rome in the first century BCE. While this survey concentrates on the main developments of Greek art, an important sub-theme of this course this is the changes Classical visual culture underwent as it served non-Greek peoples, including the role it played for Alexander and his successors in forging multiethnic, globally minded empires in Western, Central and South Asia. No background in the time period or discipline is expected and therefore this class will also serve as an introduction to interdisciplinary study of art history and the classical world. A number of art historical methodologies will be introduced in order to not only give students a useful background in art history but to give them the tools to think as art historians and incorporate related visual and textual evidence meaningfully into their writing.
ARTH 3162 - Roman Art and Archaeology (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3162/CNES 3162
Typically offered: Fall Odd, Spring Even Year
Introduction to history of Roman art, from formation of city-state of Rome under Etruscan domination, to transformation of visual culture in late antiquity under peoples influenced by the Romans.
CNRC 3162 - Roman Art and Archaeology (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3162/CNES 3162
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Introduction to art and material culture of Roman world: origin, change, continuity. Progress/decay in later empire, its legacy to modern world.
ARTH 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia (AH, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3182/CNES 3182/RelS 3182
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
This course will provide students with foundational knowledge in the art, architecture, and archaeology of Egypt, East Africa, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Iran and Central Asia from the Neolithic through Late Antiquity (ca. 7,000 B.C.E. - 650 C.E.). Students will gain an understanding of the relationship between the visual material and the social, intellectual, political, and religious contexts in which it developed and functioned. In this regard, students will also gain an understanding of the evolution of, and exchanges and differences among, the visual cultures of these time periods and regions. It will also expose them to the preconditions for contemporary geopolitics in the region.
CNRC 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia (AH, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3182/CNES 3182/RelS 3182
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
This course will provide students with foundational knowledge in the art, architecture, and archaeology of Egypt, East Africa, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Iran and Central Asia from the Neolithic through Late Antiquity (ca. 7,000 B.C.E. - 650 C.E.). Students will gain an understanding of the relationship between the visual material and the social, intellectual, political, and religious contexts in which it developed and functioned. In this regard, students will also gain an understanding of the evolution of, and exchanges and differences among, the visual cultures of these time periods and regions. It will also expose them to the preconditions for contemporary geopolitics in the region.
RELS 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia (AH, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3182/CNES 3182/RelS 3182
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
This course will provide students with foundational knowledge in the art, architecture and archaeology of Egypt, East Africa, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Iran and Central Asia from the Neolithic through Late Antiquity (ca. 7,000 B.C.E. - 650 C.E.). Students will gain an understanding of the relationship between the visual material and the social, intellectual, political and religious contexts in which it developed and functioned. In this regard, students will also gain an understanding of the evolution of, and exchanges and differences among, the visual cultures of these time periods and regions. It will also expose them to the preconditions for contemporary geopolitics in the region.
CNRC 3103 - Ancient Greece: Alexander and the East (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Achievements of Alexander the Great, their effect on Greek-speaking world. Greek colonization of Egypt. Hellenistic art, literature, philosophy.
CNRC 3106 - Ancient Rome: The Age of Nero
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
The Roman Empire. "Silver Age" of Latin literature, rise of Christianity. Art/architecture.
CNRC 3105 - Ancient Rome: The Age of Augustus
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
This course explores ancient Rome?s transformation from a democratic republic to an autocratic empire and the considerable implications this crucial shift has had for world history. It examines the fall of the Roman republic and the rise of Rome?s first emperor Augustus along with the vast cultural transformations in this age of revolution. Major issues include: Augustan art, architecture, and literature; political ideologies, propaganda, and resistance; gender, sexuality, and the family; Rome and Egypt, colonialism and cultural identity.
CNRC 3601W - Sexuality and Gender in Ancient Greece and Rome (AH, WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3601/CNES 5601
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Evidence for Ancient Greek and Roman ideas about sexuality and gender roles. The methodologies by which it is analyzed. Norms of writing about ancient culture, gender, and sexuality.
CNRC 3061 - "Bread and Circuses:" Spectacles and Mass Culture in Antiquity (HIS, CIV)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3061/Hist3061
Typically offered: Fall Odd, Spring Even Year
Development of large-scale public entertainments in ancient Mediterranean world, from athletic contests of Olympia and dramatic festivals of Athens to chariot races and gladiatorial games of Roman Empire. Wider significance of these spectacles in their impact on political, social, and economic life of the societies that supported them.
HIST 3061 - "Bread and Circuses": Spectacles and Mass Culture in Antiquity (HIS, CIV)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3061/Hist3061
Typically offered: Fall Odd, Spring Even Year
Development of large-scale public entertainments in ancient Mediterranean world, from athletic contests of Olympia and dramatic festivals of Athens to chariot races and gladiatorial games of Roman Empire. Wider significance of these spectacles in their impact on political, social, and economic life of the societies that supported them.
CNRC 3071 - Greek and Hellenistic Religions (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3071/CNES 5071/RelS 3071/
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Greek religion from the Bronze Age to Hellenistic times. Sources include literature, art, and archaeology. Homer and Olympian deities, ritual performance, prayer/sacrifice, temple architecture, death and the afterlife, mystery cults, philosophical religion. Near Eastern salvation religions.
CNRC 5071 - Greek and Hellenistic Religions
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3071/CNES 5071/RelS 3071/
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Greek religion from Bronze Age to Hellenistic times. Literature, art, archaeology. Homer/Olympian deities. Ritual performance, prayer, sacrifice. Temple architecture. Death/afterlife. Mystery cults. Philosophical religion. Near Eastern salvation religions. Meets with 3071.
RELS 3071 - Greek and Hellenistic Religions (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3071/CNES 5071/RelS 3071/
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Greek religion from the Bronze Age to Hellenistic times. Literature, art, archaeology. Homer/Olympian deities. Ritual performance, prayer, sacrifice. Temple architecture. Death/afterlife. Mystery cults. Philosophical religion. Near Eastern salvation religions. Meets with 3171.
RELS 5071 - Greek and Hellenistic Religions
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3071/CNES 5071/RelS 3071/
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Greek religion from Bronze Age to Hellenistic times. Literature, art, archaeology. Homer/Olympian deities. Ritual performance, prayer, sacrifice. Temple architecture. Death/afterlife. Mystery cults. Philosophical religion. Near Eastern salvation religions. Meets with 3071.
CNRC 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible (LITR)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNRC1201/3201,JWST1201/3201,RE
Typically offered: Every Fall
The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are literary collections that modern Jewish and Christian traditions maintain as important, but these collections were initially produced by ancient Israelite scribes who composed and/or compiled the biblical texts at particular time periods in the ancient Near East. This course will introduce the academic study of biblical texts, which demands critical analysis of the literature and an openness to reading the literature from the perspective of ancient Israelite writers (who lived in a world far different from today). The course will spend considerable time on the literary (and scribal) composition of biblical prose texts; time will also be spent on the historical circumstances of biblical prophets and other writers of the biblical texts. This course will only address the ancient setting of the biblical texts and not re-interpretations in Jewish or Christian traditions. Given the scope of the course, modern interpretations of the biblical literature will not be discussed; we will only focus on this literature in its ancient setting. prereq: Knowledge of Hebrew not required
JWST 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible (LITR)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNRC1201/3201,JWST1201/3201,RE
Typically offered: Every Fall
The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are literary collections that modern Jewish and Christian traditions maintain as important, but these collections were initially produced by ancient Israelite scribes who composed and/or compiled the biblical texts at particular time periods in the ancient Near East. This course will introduce the academic study of biblical texts, which demands critical analysis of the literature and an openness to reading the literature from the perspective of ancient Israelite writers (who lived in a world far different from today). The course will spend considerable time on the literary (and scribal) composition of biblical prose texts; time will also be spent on the historical circumstances of biblical prophets and other writers of the biblical texts. This course will only address the ancient setting of the biblical texts and not re-interpretations in Jewish or Christian traditions. Given the scope of the course, modern interpretations of the biblical literature will not be discussed; we will only focus on this literature in its ancient setting. prereq: Knowledge of Hebrew not required
RELS 3201 - The Bible: Context and Interpretation, World of the Hebrew Bible (LITR)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNRC1201/3201,JWST1201/3201,RE
Typically offered: Every Fall
The Hebrew Bible and Old Testament are literary collections that modern Jewish and Christian traditions maintain as important, but these collections were initially produced by ancient Israelite scribes who composed and/or compiled the biblical texts at particular time periods in the ancient Near East. This course will introduce the academic study of biblical texts, which demands critical analysis of the literature and an openness to reading the literature from the perspective of ancient Israelite writers (who lived in a world far different from today). The course will spend considerable time on the literary (and scribal) composition of biblical prose texts; time will also be spent on the historical circumstances of biblical prophets and other writers of the biblical texts. This course will only address the ancient setting of the biblical texts and not re-interpretations in Jewish or Christian traditions. Given the scope of the course, modern interpretations of the biblical literature will not be discussed; we will only focus on this literature in its ancient setting. prereq: Knowledge of Hebrew not required
CNRC 5204 - The Dead Sea Scrolls
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3204/RelS5204/JwSt 3204/
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Introduction to Dead Sea Scrolls and Qumran. Contents of Dead Sea Scrolls, significance for development of Bible. Background of Judaism and Christianity. Archaeological site of Qumran. Open to graduate students across the college; knowledge of classical Hebrew will not be required. The course is open to upper level undergraduate students with permission of the instructor.
RELS 5204 - The Dead Sea Scrolls
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3204/RelS5204/JwSt 3204/
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Introduction to Dead Sea Scrolls and Qumran. Contents of Dead Sea Scrolls, significance for development of Bible. Background of Judaism and Christianity. Archaeological site of Qumran. The course will focus on the material in translation and academic scholarship on the literature and archaeological site. Open to graduate students across the college; knowledge of classical Hebrew will not be required. The course is open to upper level undergraduate students with permission of the instructor.
CNRC 3535 - Death and the Afterlife in the Ancient World (AH)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3535/CNES 5535/RelS 3535/
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to death and the afterlife found in the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and Near East. Literature, funerary art/epitaphs. Archaeological evidence for burial practices and care of dead.
RELS 3535 - Death and the Afterlife in the Ancient World (AH)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: CNES 3535/CNES 5535/RelS 3535/
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to death and afterlife found in cultures of ancient Mediterranean and Near East. Literature, funerary art/epitaphs. Archaeological evidence for burial practices and care of dead.
ANTH 3001 - Introduction to Archaeology (SOCS)
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall
Archaeology is the study of humans in the past, primarily through the material remains they left behind. It seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as ?When did humans first become dependent on fire??, ?What factors led to the development of agriculture??, or ?How can we explain the rise and fall of early civilizations?? The study of each of these big questions relies on answering many small questions that are asked in the context of archaeological excavations and laboratory analyses. A common theme underlies them: archaeology aims to reconstruct and understand why past human cultures changed. The goal of this class is to provide an understanding of the methods and techniques used by archaeologists in their investigations. It includes not only hands-on learning of specific analytical techniques, such as faunal and lithic analysis as well as site survey and excavation strategies, but also focuses on the theoretical approaches that guide the questions we ask and the methods we apply to answer them. This class, therefore, prepares students for more upper-level classes in archaeology. It also leads to a new way of thinking. This way of thinking is primarily critical and analytical. It leads one to think about how data are interpreted, and how theoretical frameworks as well as innate biases color these interpretations. Seeking solutions to interpretive problems requires the creative application of multidisciplinary approaches. Therefore, the study of archaeology leads to a new way of thinking about and doing science.
ANTH 5442 - Archaeology of the British Isles
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Have you ever wondered how archaeologists interpret the vast amount of archaeological evidence from the British Isles, one of the most studied and best documented parts of the world? And how do archaeologists and governmental agencies protect the heritage of Britain, from major monuments such as Stonehenge, Roman forts, and Shakespeare?s theaters, to the minor products of craft industries such as personal ornaments and coins? This course teaches you about the archaeology of the British Isles, in all of its aspects. You learn how archaeologists study the changing societies of Britain and Ireland, from the first settlers about a million years ago to modern times. You learn about the strategies that public institutions employ to preserve and protect archaeological sites, and about the place of archaeology in tourism in the British Isles and in the formation of identities among the diverse peoples of modern Britain.
ANTH 3009 - Prehistoric Pathways to World Civilizations (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3009/Anth 8009/Hist 3066
Typically offered: Every Spring
How did complex urban societies first develop? This course addresses this question in ten regions of the world including Maya Mesoamerica, Inca South America, Sumerian Near East, Shang Civilization in East Asia, and early Greece and Rome.
HIST 3066 - Prehistoric Pathways to World Civilization (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3009/Anth 8009/Hist 3066
Typically offered: Every Spring
How did complex urban societies first develop? This course addresses this question in ten regions of the world, including Maya Mesoamerica, Inca South America, Sumerian Near East, Shang Civilization in East Asia and early Greece and Rome.
ANTH 3027W - Archaeology of Prehistoric Europe (HIS, WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3027W/Anth 5027W/Hist 306
Typically offered: Every Fall
How archaeologists analyze/interpret artifacts to develop knowledge about formation of European society, from earliest evidence of human occupation to Roman period.
ANTH 5027W - Archaeology of Prehistoric Europe (HIS, WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3027W/Anth 5027W/Hist 306
Typically offered: Every Fall
How archaeologists/historians analyze/interpret artifacts to develop knowledge about formation of European society, from earliest evidence of human occupation to Roman Period. Interpreting archaeological evidence from specific sites to understand broad trends in human past.
HIST 3067W - Archaeology of Prehistoric Europe (HIS, WI)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3027W/Anth 5027W/Hist 306
Typically offered: Every Fall
How archaeologists analyze/interpret artifacts to develop knowledge about formation of European society, from earliest evidence of human occupation to Roman period.
ANTH 3028 - Historical Archaeology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3028/Anth 5028
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
In this course, we will explore the theories and methods of historical archaeology ? such as material culture studies, landscape perspectives, archival, and oral historical interpretation - as a means of intervening in contemporary discussions of diversity in the United States. Historical archaeology can be a very effective means to challenge some of the standard American narratives about our diverse past. Our aim is to move beyond either a simplistic ethnic pluralism or the superficial ?melting pot? progressive history and instead grapple with the materiality of settler colonialism, white supremacy, and capitalism. In learning about this field, we will consider what has distinguished historical archaeology from American archaeology more broadly, and how those differences are parlayed into specific research strengths. This includes several themes: colonialism; the modern world and globalizing economies; intersectional identities (race and ethnicity, class, sex and gender, religion, age, ability/disability) and social movements; public memory and commemoration; landscapes and social space; citizenship and subjectivity. Although historical archaeology until recently has been restrictively defined as addressing the European-colonized New World, the discipline in the past twenty years has significantly broadened its scope and impact on the practice of archaeology as a whole. Throughout the course we will discuss these developments, and what directions archaeology may take in the future as a result. Course work includes both reading/discussion and learning methods through practical exercises, and handling of archaeological material.
ANTH 5028 - Historical Archaeology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3028/Anth 5028
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
In this course, we will explore the theories and methods of historical archaeology ? such as material culture studies, landscape perspectives, archival, and oral historical interpretation - as a means of intervening in contemporary discussions of diversity in the United States. Historical archaeology can be a very effective means to challenge some of the standard American narratives about our diverse past. Our aim is to move beyond either a simplistic ethnic pluralism or the superficial ?melting pot? progressive history and instead grapple with the materiality of settler colonialism, white supremacy, and capitalism. In learning about this field, we will consider what has distinguished historical archaeology from American archaeology more broadly, and how those differences are parlayed into specific research strengths. This includes several themes: colonialism; the modern world and globalizing economies; intersectional identities (race and ethnicity, class, sex and gender, religion, age, ability/disability) and social movements; public memory and commemoration; landscapes and social space; citizenship and subjectivity. Although historical archaeology until recently has been restrictively defined as addressing the European-colonized New World, the discipline in the past twenty years has significantly broadened its scope and impact on the practice of archaeology as a whole. Throughout the course we will discuss these developments, and what directions archaeology may take in the future as a result. Course work includes both reading/discussion and learning methods through practical exercises, and handling of archaeological material.
ARTH 3152 - Art and Archaeology of Ancient Greece (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3152/CNES 3152
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
This course will provide an introduction to the history of Greek art, architecture and archaeology from the formation of the Greek city states in the ninth century BCE, through the expansion of Greek culture across the Mediterranean and Asia in the Hellenistic period, to the coming of Rome in the first century BCE. While this survey concentrates on the main developments of Greek art, an important sub-theme of this course this is the changes Classical visual culture underwent as it served non-Greek peoples, including the role it played for Alexander and his successors in forging multiethnic, globally minded empires in Western, Central and South Asia. No background in the time period or discipline is expected and therefore this class will also serve as an introduction to interdisciplinary study of art history and the classical world. A number of art historical methodologies will be introduced in order to not only give students a useful background in art history but to give them the tools to think as art historians and incorporate related visual and textual evidence meaningfully into their writing.
CNRC 3152 - Art and Archaeology of Ancient Greece (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3152/CNES 3152
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
This course will provide an introduction to the history of Greek art, architecture and archaeology from the formation of the Greek city states in the ninth century BCE, through the expansion of Greek culture across the Mediterranean and Asia in the Hellenistic period, to the coming of Rome in the first century BCE. While this survey concentrates on the main developments of Greek art, an important sub-theme of this course this is the changes Classical visual culture underwent as it served non-Greek peoples, including the role it played for Alexander and his successors in forging multiethnic, globally minded empires in Western, Central and South Asia. No background in the time period or discipline is expected and therefore this class will also serve as an introduction to interdisciplinary study of art history and the classical world. A number of art historical methodologies will be introduced in order to not only give students a useful background in art history but to give them the tools to think as art historians and incorporate related visual and textual evidence meaningfully into their writing.
ARTH 3162 - Roman Art and Archaeology (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3162/CNES 3162
Typically offered: Fall Odd, Spring Even Year
Introduction to history of Roman art, from formation of city-state of Rome under Etruscan domination, to transformation of visual culture in late antiquity under peoples influenced by the Romans.
CNRC 3162 - Roman Art and Archaeology (HIS)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3162/CNES 3162
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Introduction to art and material culture of Roman world: origin, change, continuity. Progress/decay in later empire, its legacy to modern world.
ARTH 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia (AH, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3182/CNES 3182/RelS 3182
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
This course will provide students with foundational knowledge in the art, architecture, and archaeology of Egypt, East Africa, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Iran and Central Asia from the Neolithic through Late Antiquity (ca. 7,000 B.C.E. - 650 C.E.). Students will gain an understanding of the relationship between the visual material and the social, intellectual, political, and religious contexts in which it developed and functioned. In this regard, students will also gain an understanding of the evolution of, and exchanges and differences among, the visual cultures of these time periods and regions. It will also expose them to the preconditions for contemporary geopolitics in the region.
CNRC 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia (AH, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3182/CNES 3182/RelS 3182
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
This course will provide students with foundational knowledge in the art, architecture, and archaeology of Egypt, East Africa, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Iran and Central Asia from the Neolithic through Late Antiquity (ca. 7,000 B.C.E. - 650 C.E.). Students will gain an understanding of the relationship between the visual material and the social, intellectual, political, and religious contexts in which it developed and functioned. In this regard, students will also gain an understanding of the evolution of, and exchanges and differences among, the visual cultures of these time periods and regions. It will also expose them to the preconditions for contemporary geopolitics in the region.
RELS 3182 - Egypt and Western Asia: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia (AH, GP)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 3182/CNES 3182/RelS 3182
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
This course will provide students with foundational knowledge in the art, architecture and archaeology of Egypt, East Africa, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Iran and Central Asia from the Neolithic through Late Antiquity (ca. 7,000 B.C.E. - 650 C.E.). Students will gain an understanding of the relationship between the visual material and the social, intellectual, political and religious contexts in which it developed and functioned. In this regard, students will also gain an understanding of the evolution of, and exchanges and differences among, the visual cultures of these time periods and regions. It will also expose them to the preconditions for contemporary geopolitics in the region.
ARTH 5787 - Visual Cultures in Contact: Cross-Cultural Interaction in the Ancient and Early Medieval Worlds
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 5787/CNRC 5787
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Evaluate critical perspectives from variety of interdisciplinary conversations. Framework for studying cross-cultural interaction among ancient visual cultures that integrates practical, cognitive, object oriented approaches. Cross-continental movement/selective appropriation of objects/motifs.
CNRC 5787 - Visual Cultures in Contact: Cross-Cultural Interaction in the Ancient and Early Medieval Worlds
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: ArtH 5787/CNRC 5787
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Evaluate critical perspectives from variety of interdisciplinary conversations. Framework for studying cross-cultural interaction among ancient visual cultures that integrates practical, cognitive, object oriented approaches. Cross-continental movement/selective appropriation of objects/motifs.
ANTH 3221 - Field School
Credits: 6.0 [max 18.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 3221/Anth 8220
Typically offered: Every Summer
Field excavation, survey, and research. Intensive training in excavation techniques, recordation, analysis, and interpretation of archaeological materials or prehistoric remains. prereq: instr consent
ANTH 4007 - Laboratory Techniques in Archaeology
Credits: 1.0 -4.0 [max 12.0]
Course Equivalencies: Anth 4007/Anth 4007H
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Plant remains, material culture, faunal remains, human osteology. Emphasizes lab experience. Instructor consent required. prereq: instr consent
ANTH 3008 - Introduction to Flintknapping
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Hands-on experience in replication of prehistoric stone tools, as basis for archaeological analysis and as art form in itself.
ANTH 5008 - Advanced Flintknapping
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Hands-on training in techniques of advanced stone tool production, artifact reproduction, and lithic experimental design for academic/artistic purposes. prereq: [3008 or 5269] or instr consent
ANTH 3402 - Zooarchaeology Laboratory
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
How archaeologists reconstruct past societies, diets, and environments. Bones and bone fragments to skeletal element (e.g., femur, humerus, tibia), side, age, and taxon (e.g., horse, bison, antelope, hyena). Adaptations and functional morphology of animals┐ anatomy. Tool marks, tooth marks, burning, and types of bone breakage. Past societies' hunting, sharing, cooking practices as well as environmental reconstruction using vertebrates.
ANTH 5402 - Zooarchaeology Laboratory
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
How archaeologists reconstruct the past through the study of animal bones associated with artifacts at archaeological sites. Skeletal element (e.g., humerus, femur, tibia), and taxon (e.g., horse, antelope, sheep, bison, hyena) when confronted with bone. Comparative collection of bones from known taxa.