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Duluth Campus

Environmental Science Minor

D Earth & Environmental Sci
Swenson College of Science and Engineering
  • Program Type: Undergraduate minor related to major
  • Requirements for this program are current for Fall 2017
  • Required credits in this minor: 28
The environmental science minor enhances a student's understanding of the scope of environmental problems, the biochemical and physical processes of environmental degradation, the sciences of non-renewable and renewable resources, and economic and political issues surrounding environmental problems. The minor provides valuable background for many environmental careers and applications.
Program Delivery
This program is available:
  • via classroom (the majority of instruction is face-to-face)
Minor Requirements
ES Minor Requirements (24 cr)
GEOL 1110 - Geology and Earth Systems [LE CAT4, NAT SCI, SUSTAIN] (4.0 cr)
ESCI 2210 - Environmental Characterization and Monitoring (4.0 cr)
ESCI 3201 - Mineral Resources (3.0 cr)
ESCI 3202 - Energy Resources (3.0 cr)
Chemistry I with lab
CHEM 1153 - General Chemistry I [LE CAT5, NAT SCI] (4.0 cr)
CHEM 1154 - General Chemistry Lab I [LE CAT4, NAT SCI] (1.0 cr)
Chemistry II with lab
CHEM 1155 - General Chemistry II (4.0 cr)
CHEM 1156 - General Chemistry Lab II (1.0 cr)
Minor Electives (4 cr)
Take 2 or more course(s) totaling 4 or more credit(s) from the following:
· BIOL 3760 - Marine Biology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 3761 - Field Studies in Marine Biology (4.0 cr)
· BIOL 3830 - Aquatic Food Webs (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 3835 - Freshwater Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 4839 - Coral Reef Field Studies (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5777 - Plankton Biology (2.0 cr)
· BIOL 5801 - Microbial Ecology (2.0 cr)
· BIOL 5802 - Microbial Ecology Laboratory (2.0 cr)
· BIOL 5805 - Fisheries Ecology and Management (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5807 - Mathematical Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5808 - Landscape Ecology: Theory and Application (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5833 - Stream Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5861 - Lake Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5863 - Ecosystems Ecology (3.0 cr)
· BIOL 5865 - Conservation Biology (2.0 cr)
· BIOL 5870 - Wetland Ecology (3.0 cr)
· CHE 2111 - Material and Energy Balances (3.0 cr)
· CHE 2121 - Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics (3.0 cr)
· CHE 3111 - Fluid Mechanics (3.0 cr)
· CHE 5022 - Transport Processes in Wells and Pipelines (3.0 cr)
· CHEM 2541 - Organic Chemistry I (3.0 cr)
· CHEM 2542 - Organic Chemistry II (3.0 cr)
· CHEM 2543 - Organic Chemistry I Laboratory (1.0 cr)
· CHEM 2544 - Organic Chemistry II Laboratory (1.0 cr)
· ECON 3721 - Natural Resource and Energy Economics (3.0 cr)
· ECON 3777 - Environmental Economics (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3422 - Natural Hazards (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3461 - Geography of Global Resources [SUSTAIN] (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 4446 - Water Processes and Management (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 4451 - The Geography of Soils (4.0 cr)
· GEOL 3210 - Geomorphology (4.0 cr)
· GEOL 3710 - Introduction to Geochemistry (3.0 cr)
· GEOL 3800 - Principles of Geophysics (4.0 cr)
· GEOL 4355 - Economic Geology (4.0 cr)
· GEOL 4710 - Aqueous Geochemistry (4.0 cr)
· GEOL 5210 - Glacial and Quaternary Geology (4.0 cr)
· GEOL 5220 - Advances in Paleoclimatology (3.0 cr)
· GEOL 5240 - Physical Hydrogeology (4.0 cr)
· GEOL 5250 - Hydrogeology (4.0 cr)
· GEOL 5251 - Well Hydraulics (3.0 cr)
· GIS 3563 - Geographic Information Science I: Theory and Analysis (4.0 cr)
· GIS 5572 - Environmental Application of GIS (4.0 cr)
· GIS 5581 - Digital Image Processing and Analysis (4.0 cr)
· LIM 5004 - Field Limnology (2.0 cr)
· LIM 5101 - Physical Limnology (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5102 - Chemical Limnology (3.0 cr)
· LIM 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology (3.0 cr)
· MATH 3280 - Differential Equations with Linear Algebra (4.0 cr)
· PHYS 5053 - Data Analysis Methods in Physics (3.0 cr)
· PHYS 5541 - Fluid Dynamics (3.0 cr)
· STAT 5411 - Analysis of Variance (3.0 cr)
· GEOG 3401 - Weather and Climate (3.0 cr)
or GEOL 3100 - Earth's Climate and Environment: Past and Future (3.0 cr)
 
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GEOL 1110 - Geology and Earth Systems (LE CAT4, NAT SCI, SUSTAIN)
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Comprehensive survey of Earth's composition, structure, and dynamics to develop an understanding of internal processes, plate tectonics, and surface processes as a framework for geological history and development of life.
ESCI 2210 - Environmental Characterization and Monitoring
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Scientific foundations of major environmental issues that impact society, including water, natural resources, and global climate change. Issues and human impacts will be explored through field and lab exercises designed to give the student hands on experience in environmental characterization and monitoring. prereq: GEOL 1110 and (CHEM 1155 or 1162)
ESCI 3201 - Mineral Resources
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
An introduction to the geology, extraction, processing, and disposal of mineral deposits, including major metal deposits (Fe, Al, Pb, Zn, Cu), scarce metals (high-technology metals, rare earth metals), non-metal deposits (salt, fertilizer, chemicals) as well as industrial minerals and resources (stone, sand/clay). Also, includes topics related to the environmental footprint of resource mining and the impact of technological and societal development. prereq: MATH 1290 or 1296 or 1596 and PHYS 1001 or 2013 or 2017 or instructor consent
ESCI 3202 - Energy Resources
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Geologic principles of carbon-based energy resources, with emphasis on coal and conventional and unconventional (e.g. shale oil, oil-sands, ultra-heavy crude oil) petroleum and gas; fundamentals of nuclear energy; introduction to technologies associated with the extraction, production, refinement, consumption, and byproduct treatment/disposal of carbon-based and nuclear-energy resources; importance of carbon-based energy in global industrialization and associated population growth; limits of population growth imposed by energy requirements; principles and associated technologies of renewable energy and energy conversion, with focus on solar (direct and indirect), geothermal, tidal, and biofuel energy resources. prereq: MATH 1290 or 1296 or 1596 and PHYS 1001 or 2013 or 2017 or instructor consent
CHEM 1153 - General Chemistry I (LE CAT5, NAT SCI)
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: 02278 - CHEM 1173/CHEM 1153/CHEM 1161
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Fundamental principles of chemistry exemplified by study of elements, compounds, and their reactions. Covers fundamental concepts of the atom, molecule, stoichiometry, chemical reactions, thermochemistry, gas laws, atomic structure, periodic table, chemical bonding, and other selected topics. The companion laboratory, CHEM 1154, should be taken concurrently. The combination of CHEM 1153 and CHEM 1154 meets the lab component of NAT SCI, LE CAT 4. prereq: One year high school chem, Math ACT 24 or higher or a grade of least C- in Math 1005, Credit will not be granted if already received for 1151 or 1161 or 1173.
CHEM 1154 - General Chemistry Lab I (LE CAT4, NAT SCI)
Credits: 1.0 [max 1.0]
Course Equivalencies: 02279 - CHEM 1174/CHEM 1154
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Basic laboratory skills while investigating the fundamental principles of chemistry. Covers fundamental concepts of the atom and molecule, stoichiometry, acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, thermochemistry, characteristic properties of anions, gas laws and spectrophotometry. This laboratory accompanies lecture CHEM 1153. The combination of CHEM 1153 and CHEM 1154 meets liberal education category 4 requirements. prereq: Previous or concurrent enrollment in CHEM 1153 or 1173; credit will not be granted if already received for CHEM 1151, 1161 or 1174.
CHEM 1155 - General Chemistry II
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: 02280 - CHEM 1175/CHEM 1155/CHEM 1162
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Fundamental principles of chemistry exemplified by study of elements, compounds, and their reactions. Covers intermolecular forces, properties of liquids, solids and solution, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, acids and bases, solubility, thermodynamics, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, and other selected topics. Solid knowledge of college algebra and General Chemistry I is required. The companion laboratory course CHEM 1156 should be taken concurrently. prereq: 1151 or 1153 or 1161 or 1173; credit will not be granted if already received for 1152, 1162 or 1175.
CHEM 1156 - General Chemistry Lab II
Credits: 1.0 [max 1.0]
Course Equivalencies: 02281
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Fundamental principles of chemistry exemplified by laboratory study of elements, compounds, and their reactions. Covers titration, intermolecular forces, colligative properties, kinetics, chemical equilibria, and qualitative analysis. This laboratory accompanies lecture CHEM 1155. prereq: 1151 or 1161 or 1154 or 1174, concurrent or previous enrollment in CHEM 1155; credit will not be granted if already received for Chem 1152, 1162 or 1176.
BIOL 3760 - Marine Biology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
A multidisciplinary approach will be used to explore the diverse ecosystems of the marine realm. Emphasis will be on the ecological and physiological adaptations that have allowed animals to colonize habitats ranging from the intertidal zone to the abyss. prereq: 1011, 1012
BIOL 3761 - Field Studies in Marine Biology
Credits: 4.0 [max 8.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Summer
Introduction to the marine environment by visiting either US i.e. Friday Harbor, WAS or MBL, Woods Hole, MA) or International (i.e. Leigh, New Zealand) marine lab and conducting both laboratory and field research. Topics include ecology, animal physiology, animal behavior, ichthyology and fisheries biology. Lectures will precede daily field trips where students will make in situ measurements and/or bring specimens back to the laboratory for study. prereq: 1011 or instructor consent; Course may only be repeated if location is different.
BIOL 3830 - Aquatic Food Webs
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Summer
Classic and modern topics in aquatic food web ecology including biogeography, predator-prey interactions, competition, life-history strategies, and energy flow. Emphasis on phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, and macroinvertebrates. Instruction includes lectures, field and laboratory exercises, and reading and discussion. prereq: 1012
BIOL 3835 - Freshwater Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Exploration of freshwater habitats and their biological diversity with emphasis on how human behavior is affecting those habitats and biodiversity. prereq: 2801 or concurrent
BIOL 4839 - Coral Reef Field Studies
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01396 - Biol 5839/Geol 5839
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Field study on San Salvador, Bahamas focusing on the biological and geological studies of the coral reef complex and associated habitats of the Caribbean. We will examine the ecology and taxonomy of associated biota as well as the physical, chemical and sedimentary processes in coral reef environments. prereq: BIOL 1011 and 1012 or GEOL 1110 or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5777 - Plankton Biology
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Explores topics in the biology of plant and animal plankton with emphasis on lake communities. Topics include biogeography, life-history, anatomy, physiology, and ecology of plankton. Basic limnology covered as relevant. Meets twice weekly for lecture and literature discussion. prereq: 2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5801 - Microbial Ecology
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Microorganisms in natural environments: diversity, distribution, energetics, and growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic microbes in oxic and anoxic habitats. Roles of microbial populations and communities in biogeochemical cycling, ecosystem functioning, landscapes, and industrial, agricultural, and environmental applications. prereq: (2101 or 3100) and (2801 or 3502 or 4501), or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5802 - Microbial Ecology Laboratory
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Lab and field-oriented exercises that teach concepts about microbial populations and their communities, energetics, food webs, biogeochemistry, and biodiversity while providing an introduction to research methods. Students master advanced microscopic, culturing, spectroscopic, molecular, radioisotopic, and computational techniques. (3 hours lab) prereq: 5801 (may take concurrently) or WRS or IBS grad student
BIOL 5805 - Fisheries Ecology and Management
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Lectures, readings and computer exercises relating to current issues in fisheries ecology. Computer exercises will emphasize techniques used by scientists working in the field and prepare the student for the use of quantitative research tools for independent research. Includes 2 one-hour lectures and 1 three-hour lab weekly. prereq: 2801, 2802, college-level course in statistics or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5807 - Mathematical Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Development and use of mathematical models to describe ecological patterns and processes. prereq: (2801, (Math 1290 or Math 1297)) or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5808 - Landscape Ecology: Theory and Application
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall
Key issues in landscape ecology including scale, measuring landscape patterns, mechanisms shaping landscapes, implications of landscape patterns on plant and animal populations, communities, and ecosystems, and implementing landscape principles for natural resource management. prereq: 2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5833 - Stream Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Studies of stream communities and ecosystems as influenced by biological interactions and physical factors. Emphasis on North Shore streams. (2 hrs lect, 6 hrs lab and field) prereq: 2801 or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5861 - Lake Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Ecology of lakes and reservoirs. (3 hrs lect) prereq: 2801 or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5863 - Ecosystems Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Survey of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, emphasizing current literature on ecosystem processes. (3 hrs lect) prereq: 2801, or WRS or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5865 - Conservation Biology
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Introduction to science of species, habitat, and ecosystem conservation and management. prereq: 2801 or IBS Grad student
BIOL 5870 - Wetland Ecology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Hydrology, nutrient cycling, and productivity of wetland ecosystems and the adaptations and interactions of resident biota; assessment, management, conservation, restoration, and creation of wetlands. Two daylong weekend field trips required. prereq: 2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student
CHE 2111 - Material and Energy Balances
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 02519 - CHE 2211/CHE 2111
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Elementary principles of chemical processes, emphasizing material and energy balances. prereq: Chem 1151 or 1161 or 1153 and 1154, Math 1296 or 1596 minimum grade of C
CHE 2121 - Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Spring
Application of thermodynamic principles to chemical engineering, emphasizing pressure-volume-temperature relationships, thermodynamic laws, thermochemistry, chemical equilibrium, and phase relationships. prereq: 2111 or 2211, (prereq or coreq Math 3280)
CHE 3111 - Fluid Mechanics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01422 - ChE 3111/ME 3111
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
Mass and energy balances, Bernoulli's equation, momentum balance, laminar and turbulent flow, boundary layer theory, pumps, compressors, and turbines. prereq: BSChE cand, CHE 2111 or 2211 prereq or coreq, Phys 2011 or 2013 and 2014, Math 3280, or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for ME 3111 or CE 3221.
CHE 5022 - Transport Processes in Wells and Pipelines
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Fall & Spring
Exposes students to various elements of fluid and heat flows that occur in oil/gas wells and pipelines. The fundamentals of multiphase flow are explained in terms of single-phase flow mechanics and configuration of the phases. Simplicity in modeling approach is retained. Field examples are used to reinforce understanding of the models. prereq: 3111, 3112 or Grad student or instructor consent
CHEM 2541 - Organic Chemistry I
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Prerequisites: 1152 or 1162 or 1155 and 1156 or 1175 and 1176; credit will not be granted if already received for 2521
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Structure and bonding, stereochemistry, functional group reactions. prereq: 1152 or 1162 or 1155 and 1156 or 1175 and 1176; credit will not be granted if already received for 2521
CHEM 2542 - Organic Chemistry II
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Prerequisites: 2521 or 2541; credit will not be granted if already received for 2522, 2532
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Functional group reactions, bioorganic chemistry. prereq: 2521 or 2541; credit will not be granted if already received for 2522, 2532
CHEM 2543 - Organic Chemistry I Laboratory
Credits: 1.0 [max 1.0]
Prerequisites: 1152 or 1162 or 1155 and 1156 or 1175 and 1176, must be taken after or concurrently with CHEM 2541; credit will not be granted if already received for 2521, CHE 3231, ENGR 2110
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Laboratory companion to CHEM 2541. Structure and bonding, stereochemistry, functional group reactions. prereq: 1152 or 1162 or 1155 and 1156 or 1175 and 1176, must be taken after or concurrently with CHEM 2541; credit will not be granted if already received for 2521, CHE 3231, ENGR 2110
CHEM 2544 - Organic Chemistry II Laboratory
Credits: 1.0 [max 1.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
Laboratory companion to Chem 2542, for non-chemistry majors. Functional group reactions, bioorganic chemistry. prereq: 2521 or (2541 and 2543), must be taken after or concurrently with CHEM 2542; credit will not be granted if already received for 2522, 2532, 2545
ECON 3721 - Natural Resource and Energy Economics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Microeconomic analysis of natural resource and energy markets. Role of these resources in production processes and waste generation, use and pricing of nonrenewable and renewable resources over time, resource availability, sustainable development, and ecological economics. prereq: 1023, preferred but not required: 3023; credit will not be granted if already received for ECON 4721
ECON 3777 - Environmental Economics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
Microeconomic analysis of environmental quality as an economic good. Pollution control, benefit-cost analysis, valuation methodologies and their application to air and water quality, hazardous waste management, preservation, and global pollutants. prereq: 1023, preferred but not required: 3023; credit will not be granted if already received for ECON 4777
GEOG 3422 - Natural Hazards
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Geography of natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and droughts; human-physical environment interrelationships under extreme geophysical conditions; causes, characteristics, and consequences of natural hazards; human adjustment to natural hazards. Prereq: 1414 or Geol 1110, or minimum 30 credits or instructor consent.
GEOG 3461 - Geography of Global Resources (SUSTAIN)
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Spatial distribution and uses of global natural resources addressed through models of resource management, focusing on energy, non-fuel minerals, population, food, and technology. Theoretical approach and political perspective applied to trade, international economic development, and environmental issues. prereq: Minimum 30 credits or instructor consent
GEOG 4446 - Water Processes and Management
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Introduction to the surface water processes and water resources management, including precipitation, runoff generation, channel processes, spatial and temporal variations in water distribution, aspects of water quantity and quality, and watershed management problems. Prereq: Geog 1414 or Geol 1110 or Graduate students or Instructor consent.
GEOG 4451 - The Geography of Soils
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
This course gives students a fundamental understanding of the soil as a living resource. The course covers basic soil science and the critical need for sustainable soil management in the context of current agricultural and climate change. The course includes outdoor field excursions, hands-on soil study both in the field and in the lab. Course includes a weekend field trip. prereq: 1414 or Geol 1110 or grad student or instructor consent
GEOL 3210 - Geomorphology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01407 - Geol 2210/3210
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
Study of Earth surface processes emphasizing the origin and evolution of landforms; response of the physical environment to climatic change and tectonic events, and application of physical, chemical, and mathematical principles to the study and interpretation of landforms. prereq: 1110 or 2110, Math 1250 or 1290 or 1296 or 1596 or instructor consent
GEOL 3710 - Introduction to Geochemistry
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Periodic Spring
Understanding chemical reactions occurring in geological processes on scales ranging from atomic to global. Geochemistry of the Earth; chemical reactions and stability of minerals; applications of geochemistry to understanding global processes and environmental problems. (3 hrs lect) prereq: Math 1296 or equiv, Chem 1152 or instructor consent
GEOL 3800 - Principles of Geophysics
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
An introduction to the geophysical concepts and techniques used by practicing geoscientists. prereq: 2120, MATH 1297, PHYS 1002
GEOL 4355 - Economic Geology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Geologic description, distribution, and genesis of economic mineral deposits; processes leading to their formation; relationship to plate tectonics; exploration techniques and criteria for finding new deposits. Course fees assessed. prereq: 2312 or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for 4350 or 5350
GEOL 4710 - Aqueous Geochemistry
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Principles of solution chemistry, with application to chemical weathering, acid deposition, rivers, lakes, and oceans. Use of chemical equilibrium software to examine complex real world problems. prereq: Math 1290 or Math 1297 and Chem 1152 or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for 5710
GEOL 5210 - Glacial and Quaternary Geology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Physics of glacier flow, processes of erosion and deposition, survey of glacial landforms, history and chronology of glaciation. Survey of geological and biological responses to changing environment resulting from climatic fluctuations during last three million years of Earth history. Field studies on the glacial deposits of Minnesota. (2 hrs lect, 2 hrs field lab) prereq: 3210 or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for 4210
GEOL 5220 - Advances in Paleoclimatology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
Analysis of past global change from climate proxy records in glacial ice, tree rings, ocean and lake sediments, ocean corals. Impact of ocean and atmospheric circulation on global climate; climate cycles; El Nino; human impact on global climate. Offered alternate years. prereq: instructor consent
GEOL 5240 - Physical Hydrogeology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Introduction to concepts of fluid movement in Earth's crust and the interaction of rocks and water. Introduction to the hydrologic cycle, theory of flow through porous media, crustal-scale flow systems, role of fluids in the plate tectonic cycle. prereq: 2110, Phys 2011 or 2013 and 2014, Math 1296 or Math 1290 or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for 4240
GEOL 5250 - Hydrogeology
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall
A quantitative introduction to hydrogeology and aquifer mechanics with emphasis on environmental applications, including, unsaturated flow, interaction between surface water and groundwater, wellhead protection, well hydraulics, inverse methods, and solute transport. Offered alternate years. prereq: Math 1296 or Math 1290 and (Phys 2011 or 2013 and 2014) or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for 4250
GEOL 5251 - Well Hydraulics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
Hydraulics of groundwater flow to wells: equations of flow; analysis of steady and non-steady radial flow; aquifer response to stress; analysis of monitoring well networks, pumping tests, and single-point aquifer performance tests. prereq: 2312, (Phys 2011 of 2013 and 2014), (Math 1296 or Math 1290), or grad student or instructor consent
GIS 3563 - Geographic Information Science I: Theory and Analysis
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall & Spring
GIS 3563 emphasizes the concepts needed to use GIS effectively for acquiring, editing, querying, analyzing and visualizing spatial data. This course is an introduction to GIS and trains basic skills with industry standard GIS software in a wide variety of applications in both the natural and social sciences. The course covers basic data modeling, data manipulation, analytical methods and implications of geospatial technologies on society. prereq: credit will not be granted if already received for GEOG 3564 or 4563 and 4564 or GIS4565.
GIS 5572 - Environmental Application of GIS
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Fall
Explore GIS applications to the environmental issues such as natural hazards, forest management, contaminated sites, soil erosion, habitat assessment, and regional planning. Prereq: 3563 or 4565 or grad student or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOG 5572.
GIS 5581 - Digital Image Processing and Analysis
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
This advanced remote sensing course focuses on theories and applications of digital image processing and provides students with knowledge and skills of advance digital image processing and a variety of analyitical techniques. Topics include image display and visualization, methods for geometric and radiometric corrections, image enhancement, image classification, change detection, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). prereq: 3580 or instructor consent; credit will not be granted if already received for GEOG 4580 or GEOG 5581
LIM 5004 - Field Limnology
Credits: 2.0 [max 2.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Summer
Field measurements on local lakes, streams; research cruise aboard R/V Blue Heron on Lake Superior; laboratory exercises in biological, chemical, geological and physical limnology. prereq: Graduate student or instructor consent
LIM 5101 - Physical Limnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01569 - LIM 5101/5001
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Physical description of lake dynamics including: lake morphometry, water budget, light distribution, circulation, fronts, waves and mixing. Descriptive, mathematical, numerical and data-analysis techniques are used to investigate the various topics. prereq: Math 1297, Phys 2012 or 2015 and 2016, or grad student
LIM 5102 - Chemical Limnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Odd Year
Organic and inorganic chemistry of natural waters, major and minor ions, pH-Eh relationships, carbon and nutrient cycles, pore water chemistry, sediment chemistry, microbial geochemistry. Offered alternate years. prereq: Math 1296, Phys 1002 or 1202, Chem 1152 or 1162, or grad student; Credit will not be granted if already received for 5001
LIM 5103 - Geological Paleolimnology
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Course Equivalencies: 01419 - Lim 5103/5002/GEOL 5103
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Geological aspects of freshwater systems: origins, tectonic and climatic settings of lakes, geophysical mapping, physical sedimentary processes, sedimentary geochemistry, and geochronology. Particular focus on paleolimnology, the analysis of lake sediment to reconstruct past climate and environment prereq: MATH 1290 or 1296 or 1596, PHYS 1002 or 2015 or 2018, CHEM 1155 or 1175 or grad student
MATH 3280 - Differential Equations with Linear Algebra
Credits: 4.0 [max 4.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Every Fall, Spring & Summer
First, second, and higher order equations; series methods; Laplace transforms; systems; software; modeling applications; introduction to vectors; matrix algebra, eigenvalues. prereq: A grade of at least C- in 1297 or 1597
PHYS 5053 - Data Analysis Methods in Physics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Fall Even Year
Problems of data analysis in the context of dynamical models. Emphasis will be placed on large datasets that arise in astrophysics, particle dynamics, physical oceanography and meteorology. (2 hr lect & 2 hr lab) prereq: 2012 or 2015 and 2016, 1 sem programming, lab or field experience beyond 2012/2015 and 2016
PHYS 5541 - Fluid Dynamics
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Odd Year
Analytic and numeric treatment of dynamics of fluids. Rotating, stratified fluids, with applications in limnology, oceanography, and meteorology. prereq: 2022 or 2001, Math 3280
STAT 5411 - Analysis of Variance
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Typically offered: Every Fall
Analysis of variance techniques as applied to scientific experiments and studies. Randomized block designs, factorial designs, nesting. Checking model assumptions. Using statistical computer software. prereq: 3411 or 3611; a grade of C- or better is required in all prerequisite courses
GEOG 3401 - Weather and Climate
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F only
Typically offered: Every Spring
Weather and climate are critical to both Earth systems and human societies, yet they are frequently misunderstood. The goal of this course is to develop a scientific understanding of atmospheric processes and how they are responsible for weather events and climatic patterns. Atmospheric composition, structure, and motion are studied, along with precipitation processes, air masses, fronts, cyclonic storms, and the the distribution and classification of climates. prereq: 1414, minimum 30 credits or instructor consent
GEOL 3100 - Earth's Climate and Environment: Past and Future
Credits: 3.0 [max 3.0]
Grading Basis: A-F or Aud
Typically offered: Spring Even Year
Exploration of the processes that control Earth's climate and affect the environment on timescales of 100's of millions to 10's of years. Discussions will include how and why the dinosaur's environment was different from today's environment and concerns about future global warming. prereq: 1110 or 1130 or 1610, Chem 1151 or 1153/1154