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BIOLOGY (BIOL)
Swenson College of Science and Engineering
Biology
 
BIOL 1001 - Biology and Society (NAT SCI, SUSTAIN, LE CAT4)
(4.0 cr; Prereq-For nonmajors; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, every year)
This course covers basic biology as it pertains to contemporary issues. Biology coverage includes cell biology, genetics, evolution and ecology. In addition to helping students understand biology, students will learn to more critically evaluate science that is presented in the media. (3 hrs lect, 2 hrs lab)



BIOL 1010 - Home Horticulture (NAT SCI, LE CAT5)
(3.0 cr; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Concepts of basic botany, plant identification, growth and culture with practical application to sustainable landscaping, vegetable gardening, fruit culture, house plants and flower garden design. Labs include plant propagation, grafting, seed propagation, and an experiment using the scientific methods, there will be a lab report, a paper, a class presentation, a design project and two field trips.



BIOL 1011 - General Biology I (NAT SCI, LE CAT4)
(5.0 cr; Prereq-1 yr high school Chem or 1 semester college Chem, Math ACT 21 = or 1 semester college math or minimum 15 credits.; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, every year)
Fundamental concepts of biology, including chemical basis of life, cell structure and function, energy transformations, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, genetics, molecular biology, DNA technology, development, origin of life, and evolution. (4 hrs lect, 2.5 hrs lab)



BIOL 1012 - General Biology II (SUSTAIN)
(5.0 cr; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in 1011; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, every year)
Fundamental concepts of biology, including classification and diversity of life, anatomy, physiology, and development of prokaryotes, protistans, fungi, animals, and plants; behavior; population, community, and ecosystem ecology. (4 hrs lect, 2.5 hrs lab)



BIOL 1087 - Freshman Seminar: Darwinian Medicine (NAT SCI, LE CAT5)
(3.0 cr; Prereq-Freshman, fewer than 30 credits; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, offered periodically)
Darwinian medicine integrates evolutionary explanations into understanding human vulnerabilities to disease. This course introduces principles of evolution including natural selection, adaptation and phylogeny within Darwinian medicine's major subject categories: defenses, infection, novel environments, genes, design compromises, and evolutionary legacies.



BIOL 1094 - Freshman Seminar: Northern Stream Ecosystems and the Angler (NAT SCI, LE CAT5)
(3.0 cr; Prereq-Freshman, fewer than 30 credits; A-F or Aud, fall, offered periodically)
Fundamental concepts of nature and history of stream ecosystems, their inhabitants, and ecological concepts of stream organization in addition to appreciation of stream conservation and angling. Acquisition of skills and techniques for participation in the sport of fly-fishing.



BIOL 1098 - Freshman Seminar: Oceans and Human Health (LE CAT5)
(3.0 cr; Prereq-Freshman fewer than 30 credits, high school biology and chemistry; A-F or Aud, fall, odd academic years)
This multidisciplinary course will explore the interactions between the marine environment and human health. As terrestrial resources continue to be depleted, humans are exploring the oceans for additional sources of food and material. The students will be exposed to the marine environment through in class viewing of the award winning Blue Planet video series. We will investigate the consequences of both exploration and exploitation of the marine environment both in terms of marine biology and human health.



BIOL 2101 - Cell Biology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in both 1011 and 1012, ((Chem 1152 or Chem 1162 or (Chem 1155 and 1156) ), (Chem 2521 or Chem 2541), may be taken without lab BIOL 2102; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, every year)
Structure and function of procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, including cell surface, membranes, organelles, cytoskeleton, cell growth, cell physiology, and experimental methods used in cell studies. (3 hrs lect)



BIOL 2102 - Cell Biology Laboratory
(2.0 cr; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in both 1011 and 1012, concurrent registration is allowed for 2101, (Chem 2521 or Chem 2541); A-F or Aud, fall, spring, every year)
Contemporary cell biology research techniques, hypothesis testing and communication of results.



BIOL 2201 - Genetics
(3.0 cr; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in both 1011 and 1012; may be taken without lab BIOL 2202; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, every year)
Basic principles of Mendelian inheritance, molecular genetics, chromosomal aberrations, and population genetics. (3 hrs lect)



BIOL 2202 - Genetics Laboratory
(2.0 cr; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in 1011, 1012 and 2201 (concurrent registration is allowed for 2201); A-F only, fall, spring, every year)
Writing intensive course that uses an array of experimental approaches to gain understanding of the principles of genetics.



BIOL 2512 - Biology of HIV and AIDS
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1012; A-F or Aud, summer, every year)
A comprehensive overview of the current AIDS pandemic ranging from molecular and biomedical aspects to societal and psychological aspects. Molecular biology of HIV, the immune system's response, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and social implications will be discussed.



BIOL 2763 - Biology of Women (NAT SCI, CDIVERSITY, LE CAT5, LECD CAT05)
(2.0 cr; Prereq-1012; A-F or Aud, spring, summer, every year)
Fundamental principles of biology unique to women. Evolution of sex and gender; sex determination, differentiation, and development; sexual brain differences; anatomy and physiology; menstruation; oogenesis; ovulation; fertilization; pregnancy and birthing; birth control; menopause; aging; cancer; and nutrition. (2 hrs lect)



BIOL 2769 - Human Anatomy
(4.0 cr; Prereq-1011, 1012; credit will not be granted if already received for 1761; A-F or Aud, fall, every year)
Lectures in the structure of organs and tissues of the major body systems including skeletal, articular, muscular, nervous, respiratory, digestive, cardiovascular, urinary and reproductive in the context of the science of biology. Lecture material is reinforced with inquiry-based laboratory studies involving human bones, cat dissections, sheep organs, and microscopic study of tissues. Suitable for biology majors/minors and pre-professional students interested in entering health related professions. Provides (2hrs lect, 4hrs lab).



BIOL 2801 - General Ecology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in both 1011 and 1012; may be taken without lab BIOL 2802; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, every year)
Relationships between life and environment for individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems; surveys of environmental factors and biomes. May be taken without lab 2802. (3 hrs lect)



BIOL 2802 - Ecology Laboratory
(2.0 cr; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in 1011, 1012 and 2801, concurrent enrollment is allowed in 2801.; A-F or Aud, fall, every year)
Writing-intensive course that introduces sampling, data analysis and interpretation, hypothesis testing, ethical considerations in scientific practice. Includes field studies (4 hrs lab)



BIOL 3101 - Molecular Biology of Cancer
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2101; A-F or Aud, summer, every year)
Overview of mechanisms underlying the development of human cancer. Topics include intracellular signaling systems including oncogenes and tumor suppressors, cell cycle, tumorigenesis, multi-step carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis and genetic instability in cancer. The detection and modern treatment of cancer will also be discussed.



BIOL 3102 - Cell Biology of Human Disease
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2101; A-F or Aud, summer, odd academic years)
Topics in human cellular biology as related to human diseases. A focus on learning to read primary literature and critically analyze and communicate scientific ideas.



BIOL 3301 - Patterning the Embryo
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1011, 1012, Min 60 cr; A-F or Aud, fall, every year)
Important topics in developmental biology from the historical literature up to recent presentations with focus on learning how to read and critically analyze primary literature, and how to communicate ideas in written and oral scientific presentations.



BIOL 3501 - Outreach to the K-12 Science Classroom
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2201 and instructor consent; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Undergraduates in this course will work with K-12 teacher partners to develop new hands-on science projects that will improve the opportunities for K-12 school students to do experimental science and learn about the biological sciences.



BIOL 3601 - Plant Diversity
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1012; A-F or Aud, fall, every year)
Evolutionary survey of plants, focusing on diversity of life histories and patterns of organization. Fossil and extant groups, including algae, fungi and nonvascular and vascular land plants. (2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab, field trip)



BIOL 3603 - Plant Taxonomy
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1012; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Introduction to taxonomy of vascular plants, emphasizing seed plants; representative families; terminology; literature; use of keys. (2 hrs lect, 2 hrs lab)



BIOL 3701 - Animal Diversity
(4.0 cr; Prereq-1012; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Survey of major animal phyla, focusing on phylogeny, anatomy, physiology, and ontogeny. (2 hrs lect, 4 hrs lab)



BIOL 3703 - Animal Physiology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1011, 1012, one semester college chemistry; A-F or Aud, fall, every year)
Examination of principles, patterns, and mechanisms of biological function from the level of cells and tissues to the whole animal. Primary focus on comparative vertebrate physiology. (2 hours lecture, 2 hours lab)



BIOL 3760 - Marine Biology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1011, 1012; A-F only, spring, odd academic years)
A multidisciplinary approach will be used to explore the diverse ecosystems of the marine realm. Emphasis will be on the ecological and physiological adaptations that have allowed animals to colonize habitats ranging from the intertidal zone to the abyss. A field trip to the Shedd Aquarium will serve as a capstone to the course. (3 hours lecture, field trip) Course fee required.



BIOL 3761 - Field Studies in Marine Biology
(4.0 cr [max 8.0 cr]; Prereq-1011 or instructor consent; Course may only be repeated if location is different.; A-F or Aud, summer, offered periodically)
Introduction to the marine environment by visiting either US i.e. Friday Harbor, WAS or MBL, Woods Hole, MA) or International (i.e. Leigh, New Zealand) marine lab and conducting both laboratory and field research. Topics include ecology, animal physiology, animal behavior, ichthyology and fisheries biology. Lectures will precede daily field trips where students will make in situ measurements and/or bring specimens back to the laboratory for study.



BIOL 3802 - Evolution (SUSTAIN)
(3.0 cr; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in all of the following Biology courses 1011, 1012, 2201 or IBS Grad student; credit will not be granted if already received for 4801 or 4802; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, every year)
Origin, history, opposition, and evidence supporting evolutionary ideas. Basic concepts: origin of life, phylogeny, biological history, mechanisms of evolutionary change, population genetics, speciation, tempo of evolution, macroevolution, extinction, biogeography, evolution of social systems, altruism. (3 hours lecture)



BIOL 3830 - Aquatic Food Webs
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1012; A-F or Aud, summer, offered periodically)
Classic and modern topics in aquatic food web ecology including biogeography, predator-prey interactions, competition, life-history strategies, and energy flow. Emphasis on phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, and macroinvertebrates. Instruction includes lectures, field and laboratory exercises, and reading and discussion.



BIOL 3835 - Freshwater Ecology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or concurrent; A-F or Aud, spring, odd academic years)
Exploration of freshwater habitats and their biological diversity with emphasis on how human behavior is affecting those habitats and biodiversity.



BIOL 3987 - Biology Seminar
(1.0 cr; Prereq-Minimum 90 credits, Biology or Cell and Molecular Biology major; credit will not be granted if already received for 3997 AND 3998; A-F only, fall, spring, every year)
Prepare, attend, evaluate, and discuss the content and mechanics of department seminars. Students also prepare an oral presentation of their field, lab, or library research findings.



BIOL 3990 - Special Topics: (Various Titles to be Assigned)
(1.0 - 5.0 cr [max 5.0 cr]; Prereq-1012; fall, spring, summer, offered periodically)
Specific topics submitted for biology department review. Topic announced before course offered.



BIOL 3993 - Laboratory Teaching Experience
(1.0 - 2.0 cr [max 2.0 cr]; Prereq-instructor consent required, biol or cell biol major, 90 cr incl 25 cr Biol; max 2 cr may be applied toward Biol major; S-N or Aud, fall, spring, summer, every year)
Participation in teaching biology lab courses: help set up labs, participate in teaching of labs, and share in instruction of review labs.



BIOL 3994 - Undergraduate Research
(1.0 - 3.0 cr [max 6.0 cr]; Prereq-A grade of C or better in both 1011 and 1012, 60 cr, department consent required; max 4 cr may be applied to biol or cell biol major as upper div elective; S-N or Aud, fall, spring, summer, every year)
Advanced independent work in special fields.



BIOL 3996 - Internship in Biology
(1.0 - 2.0 cr [max 2.0 cr]; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in both 1011 and 1012, department consent required; max 1 cr may be applied to biol or cell biol major; S-N or Aud, fall, spring, summer, every year)
Credit given for professional work experience outside an academic department. Requires prior department approval and coordination with faculty sponsor.



BIOL 4199 - Frontiers in Cell Biology
(2.0 cr; Prereq-2101, 2201, 90 cr, IBS Grad Student; credit will not be granted if already received for 5199; A-F or Aud, fall, offered periodically)
Analysis and discussion of current literature and topics.



BIOL 4231 - Molecular Biology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-A grade of C- or better in both 2101 and 2201, (CHEM 3322 or 4351), or IBS Grad student; credit will not be granted if already received for 5231; A-F only, spring, every year)
Contemporary molecular biology techniques, linkage analysis, mutation, DNA repair and recombination, genetics of viruses and bacteria, transposable genetic elements, genetics of mitochondria and chloroplasts, genomics, genetic control of animal development and the vertebrate immune system. (3 hours lecture)



BIOL 4233 - Genomics
(3.0 cr; Prereq-3802 or IBS grad student; credit will not be granted if already received for 5233; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
A survey of current research in genome structure and evolution, and some of the bioinformatics tools used to analyze genomic data; topics include genomic data collection, gene and genome duplication, transposable elements, comparative and functional genomics



BIOL 4361 - Developmental Biology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2101, 2201 or IBS Grad student; credit will not be granted if already received for 5361; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Molecular and cellular mechanisms of development, emphasizing animal systems and including cell cycle, gametogenesis, fertilization, morphogenetic movements, differentiation of cell types, cell-cell interactions, pattern formation, gene expression, organogenesis, metamorphosis, regeneration, and aging. (2 hrs lect, 3 hrs lab)



BIOL 4501 - General Microbiology
(4.0 cr; =[BIOL 4503]; Prereq-2101 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Morphology of microorganisms; growth; environmental and physiological types; physical and chemical control; taxonomy; viruses; genetics of bacteria; practical applications, including medical, water, soil, and food microbiology. (2 hrs lect, 4 hrs lab)



BIOL 4503 - General Microbiology offered in Wroclaw, Poland
(4.0 cr; =[BIOL 4501]; Prereq-2101, department consent required; no grad credit; A-F or Aud, summer, every year)
Microbial cell structure, metabolism, nutrition, growth, and genetics. Structure and pathogenicity of viruses. Microbial taxonomy and diversity. Microbial diseases, immunity, serology, and control. Applied and environmental microbiology including medical, food, aquatic, and soil microbiology. Offered at Wroclaw University, Poland. (2 hour lecture, 4 hours lab)



BIOL 4511 - Medical Microbiology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-4501, no grad credit; A-F or Aud, fall, every year)
Overview of the dynamic relationships between human hosts and pathogenic microbes. Topics include the human immune system, antimicrobial therapy, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and pathogenic eukaryotic species.



BIOL 4604 - Plant Physiology
(4.0 cr; =[BIOL 5603, BIOL 4603]; Prereq-2201 and 1 year college chemistry or IBS grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Mechanisms underlying plant function, growth and development: metabolism, water relations, mineral nutrition, transport, internal and external regulators of growth and development, stress physiology, biotechnology. Lab exercises evaluate physiological processes that enable plants to grow under varied conditions found in nature, such as water relations, mineral nutrition, metabolism, growth and development.



BIOL 4631 - Plant Cell and Molecular Biology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2101, 2201 or IBS Grad Student; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, offered periodically)
Molecular processes and structures unique to plant cells; methods for the study of plant cells, genes and genomes. Structure and function of plant-specific organelles, endomembrane trafficking, cellular responses to biotic and abiotic stress, signal transduction, plant biochemistry and biotechnology.



BIOL 4731 - Entomology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1012 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, every year)
Structure, life history, ecology, classification, evolution, principles of control, and significance of insects in our society. Field collections. (2 hrs lect, 3 hrs lab and field)



BIOL 4761 - Ichthyology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Physiologic, taxonomic, ecologic, economic, and behavioral aspects of fishes. Lab emphasis on fishes of Great Lakes region, including field conducted independent study. (2 hrs lect, 3 hrs lab, field)



BIOL 4763 - Ornithology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, offered periodically)
Lab and field identification of birds, their migration and habitats; biological, taxonomic, and economic considerations. (2 hours lecture, 2 hours lab and field)



BIOL 4764 - Mammalogy
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, offered periodically)
Origin, taxonomy, distribution, physiology, ecology and behavior of mammals. Laboratory and fieldwork includes collection, preparation and identification of Minnesota species. (2 hrs lecture, 3 hours lab, field)



BIOL 4803 - Ecology Field Methods: Identification and Natural History of Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms
(4.0 cr; Prereq-1011, 1012, if you have taken Biol 3990 T:ID and Field Methods for ecological study of terrestrial and aquatic animals and plants, credit will not be granted for Biol 4803, no grad credit; A-F or Aud, summer, offered periodically)
Provides undergraduates with an introduction to field ecology, including field identification of northern Minnesota terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna and basic field methods to quantify distribution and abundance of plants and animals. Sampling methods taught include releves, variable radius plots, point-counts, random plots, line transects, calling surveys, dip nets and tow nets. Fieldwork will include exploration of issues related to project design and data collection, summarization and evaluation. Additional hours in the field may be required beyond regular course hours.



BIOL 4805 - Ecological Invasions
(2.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, offered periodically)
Characteristics of successful invaders, ecological effects of invasive species, genetic effects on native populations, impacts on human societies, options for control, relationships to other global changes. Case studies



BIOL 4807 - Plant Physiological Ecology offered in Poland
(4.0 cr; Prereq-2101 or 2801, instructor consent, no grad credit; A-F or Aud, summer, offered periodically)
Physiological mechanisms which individual plants, plant populations, and plant communities have evolved in response to their abiotic and biotic environment. Integrated lecture/laboratory/field study course offered at Wroclaw and Karpacz Ecological Field Station in the Karkonosz Mountains, Poland.



BIOL 4818 - Biotic Response to Climate Change
(2.0 cr; Prereq-Biol 2201 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, offered periodically)
Many species are already responding to climate change, as evidenced by earlier budburst, flowering, and arrival of insect and bird pollinators. In only a few cases can we distinguish between phenotypic responses to longer growing seasons and warmer temperatures (plasticity) and evolutionary change in response to altered patterns of natural selection. Climate change will pose strong evolutionary challenges to native populations. In this course we will explore the fundamental response of the biota to these changes" extinction, migration, and adaptation.



BIOL 4850 - Evolution in Agriculture: Crops, Animals, Weeds, and Insects
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2201, 3802 or IBS graduate student; A-F or Aud, fall, odd academic years)
In this course we will examine the evolutionary genetics underlying the process of plant and animal domestication, and the evolution of weeds and insect pests in the new environment provided by human-initiated agriculture. Classical readings on the origin of agriculture and agricultural pests (weeds and insects) and the latest findings in this constantly changing field will be examined. Students will learn key concepts regarding the response of plants and animals to natural and artificial selection, and the application of population genetics, phylogenetics, quantitative genetics, and genetic mapping to major questions in agricultural genetics. Past and current challenges in agricultural productivity and sustainability will be addressed throughout the course.



BIOL 4891 - Animal Behavior
(2.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, offered periodically)
Known behavior of various vertebrate and invertebrate phyla, emphasizing adaptive significance and the genetics and ontogeny of behavioral patterns. Mating, aggressive, nutritive, and nurturing behavior and relation to ecology of animal populations. (2 hrs lect)



BIOL 4992 - Senior Seminar: Classic Readings in Natural History
(1.0 cr; Prereq-Seniors who have declared a natural history minor, no grad credit; S-N or Aud, spring, every year)
Readings and discussion of the classics of natural history writing from authors such as Charles Darwin, Charles Lyell, John Wesley Powell, Peter Freuchen, Rachel Carson, Paul Errington, and E.O. Wilson, among others.



BIOL 5001 - Teaching and Learning in the Life Sciences
(1.0 cr; Prereq-grad student or prior teaching experience; instructor consent; S-N only, spring, every year)
Exploration of learning theory and educational practices designed to help develop skills in the classroom. Topics will include: learning styles, classroom management, assessment, active and cooperative learning, and educational technology.



BIOL 5232 - Molecular Biology Laboratory
(2.0 cr; Prereq-4231 or 4231 (concurrent enrollment is allowed), CHEM 3322 or Biochemistry and Molecular Biology or IBS Grad student; credit will not be granted if already received for 4232; A-F only, spring, every year)
Regulation of gene expression in prokaryote and eukaryotes explored through use of recombinant DNA technologies.



BIOL 5235 - Biotechnology
(4.0 cr; Prereq-(2101, 2102, 2201, Chem 3322 or Chem 4341) or Biol or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, offered periodically)
Genetic engineering with emphasis on large-scale production and isolation of recombinant proteins and metabolites. Microbial, plant and animal cell culture. Comparison of recombinant DNA technology to selective breeding and natural isolate use. Practical, legal and ethical considerations of genetic engineering. (4 hours lecture and lab)



BIOL 5240 - Ecological Genetics
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1012, 2201, Stat 1411 or IBS grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, offered periodically)
Examines basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics. Focus is on techniques that reveal the genetic structure and adaptive value of ecologically important traits.



BIOL 5401 - Coevolution of Plants, Animals and Microbes
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801, 2802, or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, every year)
Explores the evolution of interactions between species ranging from strongly antagonistic such as predator-prey interactions to strongly cooperative such as obligate mutualisms. The behavior, ecology and genetics of interacting organisms will be studied to understand their evolution. Includes two hours lecture and one three-hour lab per week.



BIOL 5511 - Virology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-4501, or IBS Grad student or instructor consent; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, offered periodically)
Viruses and hosts; effects of viral infections on cells; expression of viral genome in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells; epidemiology and pathogenesis of viruses, including emerging ones; viral evolution. (2 hrs lect, 3 hrs lab)



BIOL 5515 - Microbial Diversity and Phylogeny
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2101 or 4501 or IBS Grad student; A-F only, fall, offered periodically)
Evolutionary survey and characteristics of microorganisms focusing on autotrophic and heterotrophic prokaryotes from various habitats. Isolation, examination, and identification of bacteria from field collections using microscopic, physiological, biochemical, molecular, phylogenetic, and computer database techniques. (2 hours lecture and 2 hours lab)



BIOL 5772 - Neural Systems and Behavior
(3.0 cr; Prereq-1012, 3703 or IBS Grad student or instructor consent; A-F or Aud, spring, offered periodically)
Review of the basic neurophysiological components of animal behavior. Emphasis will be on well-studied neuroethological models such as weakly electric fish, bats, owls and crayfish.



BIOL 5777 - Plankton Biology
(2.0 cr; Prereq-2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Explores topics in the biology of plant and animal plankton with emphasis on lake communities. Topics include biogeography, life-history, anatomy, physiology, and ecology of plankton. Basic limnology covered as relevant. Meets twice weekly for lecture and literature discussion.



BIOL 5801 - Microbial Ecology
(2.0 cr; Prereq-(2101, (2801 or 4501)), or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, offered periodically)
Microorganisms in natural environments: diversity, distribution, energetics, and growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic microbes in oxic and anoxic habitats. Roles of microbial populations and communities in biogeochemical cycling, ecosystem functioning, landscapes, and industrial, agricultural, and environmental applications.



BIOL 5802 - Microbial Ecology Laboratory
(2.0 cr; Prereq-5801 (may take concurrently) or WRS or IBS grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, offered periodically)
Lab and field-oriented exercises that teach concepts about microbial populations and their communities, energetics, food webs, biogeochemistry, and biodiversity while providing an introduction to research methods. Students master advanced microscopic, culturing, spectroscopic, molecular, radioisotopic, and computational techniques. (3 hours lab)



BIOL 5805 - Fisheries Ecology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801, 2802, college-level course in statistics or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, offered periodically)
Lectures, readings and computer exercises relating to current issues in fisheries ecology. Computer exercises will emphasize techniques used by scientists working in the field and prepare the student for the use of quantitative research tools for independent research. Includes 2 one-hour lectures and 1 three-hour lab weekly.



BIOL 5807 - Mathematical Ecology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-(2801, (Math 1290 or Math 1297)) or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, odd academic years)
Development and use of mathematical models to describe ecological patterns and processes.



BIOL 5808 - Landscape Ecology: Theory and Application
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, offered periodically)
Key issues in landscape ecology including scale, measuring landscape patterns, mechanisms shaping landscapes, implications of landscape patterns on plant and animal populations, communities, and ecosystems, and implementing landscape principles for natural resource management.



BIOL 5811 - Plant Autecology
(2.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, offered periodically)
Survey of environmental factors, responses to these by an individual plant. Ecological life histories. Biotic interactions. Intraspecific variation. Use of instrumentation. Emphasizes seed plants.



BIOL 5833 - Stream Ecology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, even academic years)
Studies of stream communities and ecosystems as influenced by biological interactions and physical factors. Emphasis on North Shore streams. (2 hrs lect, 6 hrs lab and field)



BIOL 5839 - Coral Reef Field Studies
(3.0 cr; =[GEOL 5839]; Prereq-2801 or instructor consent or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, offered periodically)
Biological studies of the coral reef complex and associated habitats of the Caribbean. Ecology and taxonomy of associated biota. Field study on San Salvador, Bahamas; taught J-term every other year.



BIOL 5861 - Lake Ecology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, every year)
Ecology of lakes and reservoirs. (3 hrs lect)



BIOL 5862 - Advanced Lake Ecology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-5861 (concurrent registration allowed) or WRS or IBS grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, offered periodically)
Lake and laboratory approaches to evaluation of ecosystem health and experimental aquatic ecology. (1 hr lect, 4 hrs lab)



BIOL 5863 - Ecosystems Ecology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801, or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, even academic years)
Survey of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, emphasizing current literature on ecosystem processes. (3 hrs lect)



BIOL 5865 - Conservation Biology
(2.0 cr; Prereq-2801 or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, spring, offered periodically)
Introduction to science of species, habitat, and ecosystem conservation and management.



BIOL 5868 - Ecotoxicology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2101, 2801, college-level statistics course or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, offered periodically)
Examines the effects of toxicants on constituents of the biosphere at levels of biological organization from cells to ecosystems. Toxicant identification, toxicity testing, exposure routes, bioaccumulation, toxicant effects, regulations, and current issues.



BIOL 5869 - Great Lakes Ecology and Management
(3.0 cr; Prereq-5861 or WRS or IBS grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, odd academic years)
The world's great lakes account for over 60% of surface freshwater, occur from the Arctic Circle to the tropics and sustain a disproportionate share of the world's population and economic activity. Utilization has too often led to degradation and loss of biodiversity and beneficial uses. In response, a variety of management agencies attempt to protect and restore the lakes. The world's largest lakes will be surveyed to appreciate unique aspects of their ecology and the current problems that challenge management agencies. Successes and deficiencies of current management approaches will be reviewed as well as their capacity to address new global challenges such as climate change and biotic globalization.



BIOL 5870 - Wetland Ecology
(3.0 cr; Prereq-2801, 2802 or WRS or IBS Grad student; A-F or Aud, fall, odd academic years)
Hydrology, nutrient cycling, and productivity of wetland ecosystems and the adaptations and interactions of resident biota; assessment, management, conservation, restoration, and creation of wetlands. Two daylong weekend field trips required.



BIOL 5990 - Special Topics: (Various Titles to be Assigned)
(1.0 - 5.0 cr [max 10.0 cr]; Prereq-1012, instructor consent; A-F or Aud, spring, summer, every year)
Special topics submitted for biology department review. Topic announced before course offered.



BIOL 8139 - Seminar in Cell Biology
(1.0 cr [max 10.0 cr]; Prereq-Grad student in biol or related field; S-N or Aud, fall, spring, offered periodically)
Analysis of current topics.



BIOL 8333 - FTE: Master's
(1.0 cr; Prereq-Master's student, adviser and DGS consent; No Grade, fall, spring, summer, every year)
(No description)



BIOL 8777 - Thesis Credits: Master's
(1.0 - 18.0 cr [max 50.0 cr]; Prereq-Max 18 cr per semester or summer; 10 cr total required (Plan A only); No Grade, fall, spring, summer, every year)
(No description)



BIOL 8899 - Seminar in Ecology
(1.0 cr [max 10.0 cr]; Prereq-Grad student in biol or related field; A-F or Aud, fall, spring, every year)
In-depth analyses of topics in ecology.



BIOL 8993 - Graduate Seminar
(1.0 cr [max 10.0 cr]; Prereq-Grad student in biol or related field; S-N or Aud, fall, spring, offered periodically)
Reports on recent developments in biology and on research projects in the department.



BIOL 8994 - Graduate Research
(1.0 - 4.0 cr [max 10.0 cr]; Prereq-Grad student in biol or related field; S-N or Aud, fall, spring, summer, every year)
Directed research or study on an advanced topic.



 
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